The American Democracy, 10th Edition (Patterson)

Chapter 3: Federalism: Forging a Nation


block grants  Federal grants-in-aid that permit state and local officials to decide how the money will be spent within a general area, such as education or health.
categorical grants  Federal grants-in-aid to states and localities that can be used only for designated projects.
confederacy  A governmental system in which sovereignty is vested entirely in subnational (state) governments.
cooperative federalism  The situation in which the national, state, and local levels work together to solve problems.
devolution  The passing down of authority from the national government to the state and local governments.
dual federalism  A doctrine based on the idea that a precise separation of national power and state power is both possible and desirable.
enumerated (expressed) powers  The seventeen powers granted to the national government under Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution. These powers include taxation and the regulation of commerce as well as the authority to provide for the national defense.
federalism  A governmental system in which authority is divided between two sovereign levels of government: national and regional.
fiscal federalism  A term that refers to the expenditure of federal funds on programs run in part through states and localities.
grants-in-aid  Federal cash payments to states and localities for programs they administer.
implied powers  The federal government’s constitutional authority (through the “necessary and proper” clause) to take action that is not expressly authorized by the Constitution but that supports actions that are so authorized.
Nationalization  The process by which national authority has increased over the course of U.S. history as a result primarily of economic change but also of political action.
“necessary and proper” (elastic) clause  The authority granted Congress in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper” for the implementation of its enumerated powers.
reserved powers  The powers granted to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution.
sovereignty  The supreme (or ultimate) authority to govern within a certain geographical area.
supremacy clause  Article VI of the Constitution, which makes national law supreme over state law when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
unitary system  A governmental system in which the national government alone has sovereign (ultimate) authority.
Patterson Tenth Edition Large Cover
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