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Women's Lives: Multicultural Perspectives, 4/e
Gwyn Kirk, San Francisco State University
Margo Okazawa-Rey, San Francisco State University

Table of Contents

* Indicates New Reading
Introduction: The Framework of This Book
The Focus of Women’s Studies
The Framework for This Book: Collective Action for a Sustainable Future
An Activist Approach
A Sustainable and Secure Future
The United States in a Global Context
Linking the Personal and the Global
A Matrix of Oppression and Resistance
Feminisms: Tangling with the "F" Word
Myth 1: Women's Studies is Ideological
Myth 2: Women's Studies is a White, Middle-Class Thing
Myth 3: Women's Studies is Narrowly Concerned with Women’s Issues
Scope of the Book


Chapter One. Theories and Theorizing: Integrative
Frameworks for Understanding
Definition of a Theory
Theories, Theorizing, and Ways of Knowing
The Dominant Perspective
Alternative Perspectives
The Role of Values
Theoretical Frameworks for Understanding Women’s Lives
"Socially Lived" Theorizing
Media Representations and the Creation of Knowledge
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
1. Judith Lorber, "The Social Construction of Gender"
2. Allan G. Johnson, "Patriarchy, the System: An It, Not a He, a Them, or an Us"
3. Combahee River Collective, "A Black Feminist Statement"
*4. Minnie Bruce Pratt, "Who Am I If I’m Not My Father’s Daughter?"
5. JeeYeun Lee, "Beyond Bean Counting"
*6. Chandra Talpade Mohanty, "Genealogies of Community, Home, and Nation"
*7. Onnesha Roychoudhuri, Worldviews--news media

Chapter Two. Identities and Social Locations: Who Am I? Who Are My People?

Being Myself: The Micro Level
Community Recognition, Expectations, and Interactions: The Meso Level
Social Categories, Classifications, and Structural
Inequality: Macro and Global Levels
Maintaining Systems of Structural Inequality
Colonization, Immigration, and the U.S. Landscape of Race and Class
Multiple Identities, Social Location, and Contradictions
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
8. Frederica Y. Daly, "Perspectives of Native American Women on Race and Gender"
9. Dorothy Allison, "A Question of Class"
*10. Gwendolyn D. Pough, "Love Feminism but Where’s My Hip Hop? Shaping a Black Feminist Identity"
*11. Melanie Kaye/Kantrowitz, "Jews in the U.S.: The Rising Costs of Whiteness"
*12. Amani Elkassabani, "Hanaan’s House"
13. Elizabeth Martínez, "A Word about the Great Terminology Question"
14. Mary C. Waters, "Optional Ethnicities: For Whites Only?"


Chapter Three. Women’s Bodies and Beauty Ideals
Body Image and the Beauty Ideal
The Beauty Ideal
The Beauty Business
Commodification and Co-option
Whites Only? Forever Young? Always Able?
Resisting Beauty Stereotypes
Feminist Theorizing about Body Image and Beauty Ideals
Body Politics
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
*15. Jean Kilbourne, "‘The More You Subtract, the More You Add’: Cutting Girls Down to Size"
16. Abra Fortune Chernik, "The Body Politic"
*17. Toni Morrison, "The Coming of Maureen Peal"
18. Judith Ortiz Cofer, "The Story of My Body"
19. Lani Ka’ahumanu, "My Body is a Map of My Life"
20. Cheryl Marie Wade, "I Am Not One of the"
*21. Rosemarie Garland Thomson, "Feminist Theory, the Body, and the Disabled Figure"

Chapter Four. Women’s Sexuality

Stereotypes, Contradictions, and Double Standards
What Is Women’s Autonomous Sexuality?
Challenging Binaries
Theorizing Sexuality
The Erotic as Power
Activism and Sexuality
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
22. Sandra Cisneros, "Guadalupe the Sex Goddess"
23. Naomi Wolf, "Radical Heterosexuality"
24. June Jordan, "A New Politics of Sexuality"
*25. Diane Raymond, "Popular Culture and Queer Representation"
26. Surina Khan, 'The All-American Queer Pakistani Girl"
27. Leslie Feinberg, "We Are All Works in Progress'
28. Audre Lorde, "Uses of the Erotic: The Erotic as Power"

Chapter Five. Women's Health

Reproductive Health
Controlling Fertility
Medicalization of Reproductive Life
Women and Illness
Effects of Gender, Race, and Class
Mental and Emotional Health
Health and Aging
The Medical Industry
Paying for Medical Care
Other Barriers and Biases in Medical Services and Research
Health as Wellness
Requirements for Good Health
Feminist Approaches to Wellness
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
29. Joy Harjo, "Three Generations of Native American Women’s Birth Experience"
*31. Judith Arcana,"Abortion is a Motherhood Issue"
*32. Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice, "Reproductive Justice: Vision, Analysis, and Action for a Stronger Movement" (2005)
*33. bell hooks, "Living to Love"
34. Mary Jane Knopf-Newman, "Public Eyes: Investigating the Causes of Breast Cancer"

Chapter Six. Violence against Women

What Counts as Violence against Women?
The Incidence of Violence against Women
Effects of Race, Class, Nation, Sexuality, and Disability
Explanations of Violence against Women
Micro-level explanations
Macro-level explanations
Ending Violence against Women
The Importance of a Political Movement
Providing Support for Victims/Survivors
Public and Professional Education
Policy and Legislative Initiatives
Contradiction of Seeking State Support to End Violence against Women
Women’s Rights as Human Rights
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
35. Grace Caroline Bridges, "Lisa’s Ritual, Age 10"
*36. Aurora Levins Morales, "Radical Pleasure: Sex and the End of Victimhood"
*37. John Stoltenberg, "‘I am Not a Rapist!’ Why College Guys are Confronting Sexual Violence"
*38. Lora Jo Foo "Domestic Violence and Asian American Women"
39. Andy Smith, "Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide"
40. Eve Ensler, "My Vagina Was My Village"


Chapter Seven. Relationships, Families, and Households
Defining Ourselves through Connections with Others
Marriage and Domestic Partnership
Motherhood and Parenting
The Ideal Nuclear Family
U.S. Families: Cultural and Historical Variations
Immigration and the Family
Feminist Perspectives
Challenging the Private/Public Dichotomy
Mothering and Maternal Thinking
The Family and the Economic System
Policy Implications and Implementation
Toward a Redefinition of Family Values
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
*41. Paula Ettelbrick, "Since When Is Marriage a Path to Liberation?"
42. Sharon Olds, "35/10"
43. Carol Gill and Larry A. Voss, "Shattering Two Molds: Feminist Parents with Disabilities"
*44. Ann Filmemyr, "Loving across the Boundary"
*45. Rachel Aber Schlesinger, "Personal Reflections on Being a Grandmother: L’Chol Dor Va Dor"
*46. Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, "Fundamentalism and the Family: Gender, Culture, and the American Pro-family Movement"
47. Shailja Patel, "Shilling Love"

Chapter Eight. Work, Wages, and Welfare

Defining Women’s Work
Women in the U.S. Workforce
Women’s Wages: The Effects of Gender, Race, Class, Disability, and Education
Discrimination against Working Women: Sexual Harassment, Age, and Disability
Balancing Home and Work
Organized Labor and Collective Action
Pensions, Disability Payments, and Welfare
Pensions and Disability Payments
Feminist Approaches to Women’s Work and Income
Comparable Worth
Feminization of Poverty
Impact of Class
Policy Implications and Activist Projects
Promoting Greater Economic Security for Women
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
48. Hattie Gossett, "the cleaning woman/labor relations #4"
*49. "He Works, She Works, but What Different Impressions They Make"
*50. Shireen Lee, "The New Girls Network: Women, Technology, and Feminism"
*51. Ann Crittenden, "The Mommy Tax"
*52. Veronica Chambers, "To Whom Much is Given, Much is Expected: Successful Women, Family, and Responsibility"
*53. Nolita Clark and Shannon Stanfield with Vivyan Adair, "Remarkable Journeys: Poor, Single Mothers Accessing Higher Education"

Chapter Nine. Living in a Global Economy

The Global Factory
The Profit Motive
Consumerism, Expansionism, and Waste
The Myth of Progress
Emphasis on Immediate Costs
The Global Economy
Complex Inequalities
Legacies of Colonialism
External Debt
Implications of Global Economic Inequalities
Connections to U.S. Policy Issues
International Alliances among Women
The Seeds of a New Global Economy
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
54. María Patricia Fernández-Kelly, "Maquiladoras: The View from Inside"
*55. Rhacel Salazar Parreñas, "The Care Crisis in the Philippines: Children and Transnational Families in the New Global Economy"
*56. Ursula Biemann, "Remotely Sensed: A Topography of the Global Sex Trade"
*57. Vandana Shiva, "Corporate Control of Water"
*58. International Committee for the Peace Council, "The Chiang Mai Declaration--Religion and Women: An Agenda for Change" (2004)


Chapter Ten. Women, Crime and Criminalization
The National Context: "Get Tough on Crime"
Women in the Criminal Justice System
Characteristics of Incarcerated Women
Offenses Committed by Women and Patterns of Arrest
Sentence Length and Time Served
Race and Class Disparities
Girls in the Criminal Justice System
Women Political Prisoners
Theories of Women and Crime
"Equality with a Vengeance": Is Equal Treatment Fair Treatment?
The "Prison Industrial Complex"
Inside/Outside Connections
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
59. Shannon Murray, "Shannon’s Story"
*60. Marilyn Buck, "Women in Prison and Work"
61. Rita Takahashi, "U.S. Concentration Camps and Exclusion Policies: Impact on Japanese American Women"
*62. Suad Joseph and Benjamin D'Harlingue, "Media Representations and the Criminalization of Arab Americans and Muslim Americans"
*63. Julia Sudbury, "Women of Color, Globalization, and the Politics of Incarceration"
*64. Susan B. Tucker and Eric Cadora, "Justice Reinvestment"

Chapter Eleven. Women and the Military, War, and Peace

The Need for Women in the Military
The Military as Employer
Limitations to Women’s Equal Participation
Women in Combat Roles
Officer Training: Storming the Citadel
Sexism and Misogyny
Sexual Orientation
Military Wives
The Impact of the U.S. Military on Women Overseas
Militarized Prostitution
Mixed-Race Children Fathered by U.S. Troops
Crimes of Violence against Women
Health Effects of Environmental Contamination
Women's Opposition to the Military
Early Peace Organizations in the United States
Feminist Antimilitarist Perspectives
Redefining Security
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
*65. Cynthia Enloe ?Sneak Attack: The Militarization of U.S. Culture?
*66. Kristin Henderson, "The Siege"
*67. Suzuyo Takazato, "Report from Okinawa: Long-Term U.S. Military Presence"
*68. Julia Ward Howe, "Mother's Day Proclamation--1870"
69. Jean Grossholtz, "The Search for Peace and Justice: Notes toward an Autobiography"
70. Women's Pentagon Action, "Unity Statement"
*71. Betty Burkes, "Full Moon: The Imagery of Wholeness and Celebration"

Chapter Twelve. Women and the Environment

Theoretical and Activist Perspectives
Deep Ecology and Bioregionalism
Environmental Justice
Connectedness and Sustainability
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
72. Cindy Chan Saelee, "My Mom's Garden"
*73. Sandra Steingraber, "Rose Moon" (excerpt)
74. Ynestra King, "The Ecofeminist Imperative"
75. The First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, "Principles of Environmental Justice"
76. Mililani Trask, "Native Hawaiian Historical and Cultural Perspectives on Environmental Justice"
77. H. Patricia Hynes, "Consumption: North American Perspectives"


Chapter Thirteen. Creating Change: Theory, Vision, and Action
How Does Change Happen?
Using the Head: Theories for Social Change
Using the Heart: Visions for Social Change
Using the Hands: Action for Social Change
Overcoming Blocks to Effective Action
Women and Political Activism
Identity-Based Politics
Feminist Movements
Women in Electoral Politics
Building Alliances for the Twenty First Century
Some Principles for Alliance Building
Overcoming Impediments to Effective Alliances
Creating a Secure and Sustainable World
Questions for Reflection
Finding Out More on the Web
Taking Action
78. Christina Leaño, "Listening to the Voices of My Spiritual Self"
79. Cynthia Cohen, "Common Threads: Life Stories and the Arts in Educating for Social Change"
*80. Vivien Labaton and Dawn Lundy Martin, "Making What Will Become"
*81. Alison Stein Wellner, "A Chain Letter Reaction"
82. Charlotte Bunch, "Whose Security?"
*83. Peggy Antrobus, "The Global Women's Movement: Definitions and Origins"