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Table of Contents

ANNUAL EDITIONS: Assessment and Evaluation 10/11


Correlation Guide

Topic Guide

Internet References

UNIT 1: Standards, Accountability, and Issues
Unit Overview

1. Assessments and Accountability (Condensed version), Robert L. Linn, Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, January 2001

Assessment and accountability have played a major role in many reform efforts over the past 50 years. Robert Linn presents information about characteristics of reform efforts and ways to use assessment information wisely.

2. Why Has High-Stakes Testing So Easily Slipped into Contemporary American Life?, Sharon L. Nichols and David C. Berliner, Phi Delta Kappan, May 2008

High-stakes standardized testing is growing in popularity in schools in the United States. The authors argue that there is a lack of evidence to support the use of standardized testing to bolster academic achievement.

3. Assessment around the World, Iris C. Rotberg, Educational Leadership, November 2006

Comparison of accountability across the globe is discussed. Iris Rotberg proposes that there are several misperceptions about other countries ' practices and questions the validity of international test score comparisons and indications. Educational practices are reviewed for the following countries: England, Turkey, Germany, Singapore, Japan, and China.

4. Are Standards Preventing Good Teaching?, Clair T. Berube, The Clearing House, July/August 2004

Standards and high-stakes testing compatibility are discussed in terms of measuring complex thinking. Two questions are asked, "Can standards-based assessments truly measure complex thinking skills?" and "Are teachers really assessing the standards?"

5. Schools, Poverty, and the Achievement Gap, Ben Levin, Phi Delta Kappan, September 2007

The relationship between socioeconomic status and achievement remains strong for all ethnic groups around the world. Ben Levin discusses proceedings from a world conference that addressed ‘creating greater equity in the outcomes of education. ' Practices implemented in Canada are presented.

UNIT 2: Instruction and Assessment
Unit Overview

6. Making Benchmark Testing Work, Joan L. Herman and Eva L. Baker, Educational Leadership, November 2005

Alignment is the linchpin of the standards-based reform movement. The authors of the article discuss six criteria that can help educators judge benchmark assessments: alignment, diagnostic value, fairness, technical quality, utility, and feasibility.

7. Mapping the Road to Proficiency, Thomas R. Guskey, Educational Leadership, November 2005

A table of specifications brings added validity and utility to classroom assessments, according to Thomas Guskey. A Table of Specification depicts the types of knowledge and skills that students must master to meet a particular standard. To bring about significant improvement in education, one must link standards, instruction, and assessments.

8. Curriculum Mapping: Building Collaboration and Communication, Angela Koppang, Intervention in School and Clinic, January 2004

Curriculum Mapping is discussed as a tool to assist teachers in communicating the content, skills, and assessments used in their classrooms. The process of curriculum mapping is explained and the adaptation of the process for special education teachers is detailed.

9. Developing Standards-Based Curricula and Assessments: Lessons from the Field, Nancy A. Clarke et al., The Clearing House, July/August 2006

The five-step model "Process Leads to Products," is a framework for creating a seamless connection between curricula and assessment. The authors discuss the process of curriculum and assessment development, along with the active role required of instructional leaders to make the plan effective.

10. Assessing Problem-Solving Thought, Annette Ricks Leitze and Sue Tinsley Mau, Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, February 1999

Examples of scoring mathematical problem-solving assessment activities are detailed. The authors provide examples of student work and describe the evaluation process using a scoring rubric. This is a good article for discussing how to score student 's brief-constructed responses.

11. Looking at How Students Reason, Marilyn Burns, Educational Leadership, November 2005

Linking assessment with instruction provides information for the continual evaluation of instructional choices. Marilyn Burns discusses the benefits of considering student 's oral responses and written responses during classroom instructional discussions as assessment strategies.

12. Engineering Successful Inclusion in Standards-Based Urban Classrooms, Deborah L. Voltz et al., Middle School Journal, May 2008

The article focuses on inclusive education. A framework for creating heterogeneous classrooms is presented. Using a case study, the authors describe how the framework is used to guide the design and development of an instructional practice.

UNIT 3: Monitor Student Learning
Unit Overview

13. The Best Value in Formative Assessment, Stephen Chappuis and Jan Chappuis, Educational Leadership, December 2007/January 2008

Differences between formative and summative assessment methods are presented. There are suggestions about ways teachers can use information gleaned from assessments to design instruction. The article provides information about topics related to self-assessment and feedback.

14. Learning to Love Assessment, Carol Ann Tomlinson, Educational Leadership, December 2008

As a novice teacher, the author was apprehensive about how to assess her students. She describes her journey from fearing assessment to using informative assessment to improve her teaching and student learning.

15. Classroom Assessment: Minute by Minute, Day by Day, Siobhan Leahy et al., Educational Leadership, November 2005

The authors offer a brief sampling of techniques for implementing five broad assessment-for-learning strategies to improve instruction. Strategies presented include: clarifying learning outcomes and expectations; facilitating effective discussions; questioning and learning tasks; providing appropriate feedback; and activating self-assessment and peer learning.

16. Seven Practices for Effective Learning, Jay McTighe and Ken O 'Connor, Educational Leadership, November 2005

Seven specific assessment and grading practices that can enhance teaching and learning processes are proposed. The recommended practices include: using summative assessments in terms of desired outcomes; reviewing scoring criteria; providing examples of work products; using diagnostic assessment strategies to identify deficient prerequisite skills and misconceptions; giving appropriate options for demonstrating knowledge, skills, and understanding; and providing feedback early and often.

17. Homework: A Few Practice Arrows, Susan Christopher, Educational Leadership, December 2007/January 2008

Advantages of using homework as an assessment strategy and students ' attitudes about homework are explored. Grading systems based on standards rather than test scores are proposed as an effective way to accurately evaluate student achievement.

18. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Improve Achievement, Suzanne Clarke, Principal, January/February 2009

The article presents information on the data-driven method of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for student progress monitoring. It is proposed that CBM is one of the most commonly used and the most researched model for monitoring student progress. Suzanne Clarke suggests that the process can help identify students who need interventions.

19. Research Matters/How Student Progress Monitoring Improves Instruction, Nancy Safer and Steve Fleischman, Educational Leadership, February 2005

Key differences between student progress monitoring and mastery measurement approaches are discussed. It is proposed that when teachers use the student progress monitoring model approach, students learn more, teacher decision-making improves, and students become more aware of their own performance.

UNIT 4: Performance Assessments
Unit Overview

20. Teaching with Rubrics: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, Heidi Goodrich Andrade, College Teaching, Winter 2005

The article gives a brief overview of the structure and purposes of rubrics; reviews the benefits of using rubrics as both teaching and grading tools; warns against approaches that limit the effectiveness of rubrics; and urges instructors to take simple steps toward ensuring the validity, reliability, and fairness of their rubrics.

21. Designing Scoring Rubrics for Your Classroom, Craig A. Mertler, Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2001

Detailed procedures for designing two types of scoring guides, holistic and analytic rubrics, are outlined. The article is a wonderful resource for designing rubrics.

22. A Teacher 's Guide to Alternative Assessment: Taking the First Steps, Carol A. Corcoran, Elizabeth L. Dershimer, and Mercedes S. Tichenor, The Clearing House, May/June 2004

Implementing authentic strategies into the instruction process are encouraged. Strategies suitable for assessing student learning for a K–12 population are recommended.

23. Digital-Age Assessment: E-Portfolios Are the Wave of the Future, Harry Grover Tuttle, Technology & Learning, February 2007

Electronic portfolios can be a great way for educators to track student progress, share information, and motivate students to examine how and what they learn. The article presents various aspects of the process to help educators get started.

UNIT 5: Data Driven Decisions
Unit Overview

24. Using Data to Differentiate Instruction, Kay Brimijoin, Ede Marquissee, and Carol Ann Tomlinson, Educational Leadership, February 2003

Using multiple assessment strategies to gather evidence of student learning enables the teacher to differentiate instruction. The authors describe how a fifth grade teacher uses assessment data to target learner instructional needs. The article describes different types of strategies for collecting data for different purposes: pre-assessment, formative, and summative. Pupil self-assessment strategies are explained.

25. First Things First: Demystifying Data Analysis, Mike Schmoker, Educational Leadership, February 2003

Data can provide answers to two important questions: "How many students are succeeding?" and "What are the students ' weaknesses and strengths?" Overall, assessment data should be used to plan instruction with the intent to improve student achievement.

26. Data in the Driver 's Seat, Paul Bambrick-Santoyo, Educational Leadership, December 2007/January 2008

Paul Bambrick-Santoyo discusses issues associated with ‘how to interpret standards' and ‘assessment data results. ' Examples of six different assessment items that supposedly measure the same standard are presented. Teachers struggle with three issues: identifying an assessment item that will measure the standard, identifying the performance level that represents mastery of the standard, and examining student work to identify student errors and misconceptions for the purpose of planning instruction.

27. Testing and Assessment 101, Ronald S. Thomas, American School Board Journal, January 2008

Data is an important component of an accountability system. Ronald Thomas discusses the three major sources of assessment data: external data, school-wide or district-wide benchmark data, and classroom data. Assessment data can be used in two ways in schools: for educational accountability and for instructional decision-making. Assessments terms are provided.

28. Making Instructional Decisions Based on Data: What, How, and Why, Koulder Mokhtari, Catherine A. Rosemary, and Patricia A. Edwards, International Reading Association, The Reading Teacher, December 2007/January 2008

The Data Analysis Framework for instructional decision-making is discussed as an assessment tool. Included in the article are guiding questions for assisting teams of educators in analyzing data, discussing the patterns and relationships within those data, and constructing interpretations that they can then translate into goals and action steps to improve reading and writing achievement.

29. Answering the Questions That Count, David Ronka et al., Educational Leadership, December 2008/January 2009

The authors discuss how examining student data by questioning can mobilize staff, promote data literacy, and help increase student achievement. A framework for building data literacy is offered. Several examples of the questions asked in an essential-questions approach for organizing data are given.

UNIT 6: Communication, Grading, and Reporting
Unit Overview

30. Feedback That Fits, Susan M. Brookhart, Educational Leadership, December 2007/January 2008

Feedback as formative assessment information fulfills cognitive and motivational factors for students. The article includes tips on how to offer effective feedback.

31. Developing Teacher-Parent Partnerships across Cultures: Effective Parent Conferences, LuAnn Jordan et al., Intervention in School and Clinic, January 1998

General guidelines for enhancing teacher-parent conferences with parents of diverse cultures are the foci of the article. The authors present methods for discussing learning or behavior problems. In addition, strategies to help teachers design effective conference plans are discussed: personal beliefs, values, expectations that guide their social interactions, and culturally sensitive conference strategies.

32. Partnerships for Learning: Conferencing with Families, Holly Seplocha, Young Children, September 2004

Conferencing tips for teachers working with young children are presented. The article, "We:" The Most Important Feature of a Parent-Conference, is included for teachers to photocopy and send home to each family a few days before conferences.

33. Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences, John A. Borba and Cherise M. Olvera, The Clearing House, July/August 2001

Student-led parent-teacher conferences are an important component of promoting student achievement. The article presents an authentic story about the success of conferences at a middle school in California.

34. Grades as Valid Measures of Academic Achievement of Classroom Learning, James D. Allen, The Clearing House, May/June 2005

A purpose of grading student work is to inform and communicate student performance and progress. Yet, the task of accurate reporting is tied to principles of validity. James Allen addresses issues of validity, fair practices in grading, a need for common language, and shared understanding about reporting systems.

35. Grading to Communicate, Tony Winger, Educational Leadership, November 2005

Grading and reporting student progress are practices being scrutinized because grades are the most common way to communicate pupil achievement and academic growth. Tony Winger poses a controversial question, "Does grading interfere with learning?"

36. Making the Grade in Middle School, Ruth Dyrness and Albert Dyrness, Kappa Delta Pi Record, Spring 2008

The right grading policies can promote both self-esteem and academic success. The authors provide strategies for assessing students and designing assessments for a middle school population.

UNIT 7: Self-Assessment and Motivation
Unit Overview

37. Helping Students Understand Assessment, Jan Chappuis, Educational Leadership, November 2005

Teachers can create positive learning environments. Seven strategies are described to help engage students in the activity of self-assessing and to establish individual learning goals.

38. Self-Assessment through Rubrics, Heidi Andrade, Educational Leadership, December 2007/January 2008

An effective rubric can enable students to self-assess and set learning goals. The article provides clarification on two commonly used assessment terms: self-assessment and self-evaluation.

39. Launching Self-Directed Learners, Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick, Educational Leadership, September 2004

Educators can help students to take charge of their own learning. The article includes definitions on self-directed learners and explanations on self-monitoring. Included are examples that illustrate how students can practice self-directedness and self-assessment in the classroom.

40. Assessment through the Student 's Eyes, Rick Stiggins, Educational Leadership, 2006–2007

Rather than sorting students into winners and losers, assessment for learning can put all students on a winning streak. Rick Stiggins addresses the issue of assessment in education and argues that the outcomes of testing affect how students perceive their own abilities.

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