Information Center
Feature Summary
Overview of the Series
Table of Contents

Student Edition
Instructor Edition
Grammar Forms and Functions Student Book Two

Milada Broukal, Glendale Community College

ISBN: 0070082278
Copyright year: 2004

Overview of the Series

Pedagogical Approach

What is form?
Form is the structure of a grammar point and what it looks like. Practice of the form builds students’ accuracy and helps them recognize the grammar point in authentic situations, so they are better prepared to understand what they are reading or what other people are saying.

What is function?
Function is when and how we use a grammar point. Practice of the function builds students’ fluency and helps them apply the grammar point in their real lives.

Why does Grammar Form and Function incorporate both form and function into its approach to teaching grammar?
Mastery of grammar relies on students knowing the rules of English (form) and correctly understanding how to apply them (function). Providing abundant practice in both resources form and function is key to student success.

How does Grammar Form and Function incorporate form and function into its approach to teaching grammar?
For each grammar point, the text follows a consistent format:

  • Presentation of Form. The text presents the complete form, or formal rule long with several examples for students to clearly see the model. There are also relevant photos to help illustrate the grammar point.
  • Presentation of Function. It explains the function of the grammar point, or how it is used, along with additional examples for reinforcement.
  • Practice. It provides diverse exercises to practice the form and function together. Practice moves logically from more controlled to less controlled activities.
  • Application. It asks students to apply the grammar point in open-ended communicative activities. Your Turn requires students draw from and speak about personal experiences, and Writing provides a variety of writing assignments that rely on communicative group and pair discussions.
  • Expansion activities in the Teacher’s Manual provide additional creative, fun practice for students.

What is the purpose of the photos in the book?
Most people have a visual memory. When they see a photo aligned with a grammar point, the photo helps them remember and contextualize the grammar. The photo reinforces the learning and retention. If there were no visual image, you’d be more likely to forget the grammar point. For example, let’s say you are learning the present continuous. You read the example “She is drinking a glass of water.” At the same time, you are shown a photo of a girl drinking a glass of water. Later, you are more likely to recall the form of the present continuous because your mind has made a mental picture that helps you remember.


How were the grammar points selected?
We did a comprehensive review of courses at this level to ensure that all of the grammar points taught were included.

Does Grammar Form and Function have controlled or communicative practice?
It has both. Students practice each grammar point through controlled exercises and then move on to tackle open-ended communicative activities.

Do students have a chance to personalize the grammar?
Yes. There are opportunities to personalize the grammar in Your Turn and Writing. Your Turn requires students draw from and speak about personal experiences, and Writing provides a variety of writing assignments that rely on communicative group and pair discussions.

Does Grammar Form and Function help students work toward fluency or accuracy?
Both. The exercises are purposefully designed to increase students’ accuracy and enhance their fluency by practicing both form and function. Students’ confidence in their accuracy helps boost their fluency.

Why does Grammar Form and Function feature writing practice?
Grammar and writing are linked in a natural way. Specific grammar structures lend themselves to specific writing genres. In Grammar Form and Function, carefully devised practice helps students keep these structures in mind as they are writing.

In addition to the grammar charts, what other learning aids are in the book?
The book includes 19 pages of appendices that are designed to help the students as they complete the exercises. In addition to grammar resourses such as lists or irregular verbs and spelling rules for endings, the appendices also feature useful and interesting information, including grammar terms, rules for capitalization and punctuation, writing basics, and even maps. In effect, the appendices constitute a handbook that students can use not only in grammar class, but in other classes as well.

Are there any additional practice opportunities?
Yes, there are additional exercises in the Workbook and on the Website. There are also Expansion activities in the Teacher’s Manual that provide more open-ended (and fun!) practice for students.


What is the role of student self-in Grammar Form and Function?
Every opportunity for student self-assessment is valuable! Grammar Form and Function provides two Self-Tests for each unit – one at the end of each Student Book unit and another at the end of each Workbook unit. The Self-Tests build student confidence, encourage student independence as earners, and increase student competence in following standardized test formats. In addition, the Self-Tests serve as important tools for the teacher in measuring student mastery of grammar structures.

Does Grammar Form and Function offer students practice in standardized test formats?
Yes, the two Self-Tests and the Unit Quiz for each unit all utilize standardized test formats. Teachers may use the three tests in the way that best meets student, teachers, and institutional needs. For example, teachers may first assign the Self-Test in the Workbook as an untimed practice test to be taken at home. Then in the classroom teachers may administer the Self-Test in the Student Book for a more realistic, but still informal, test-taking experience. Finally, teachers may administer the Unit Quiz from the Teachers Manual as a more standardized timed test.

How long should each Self-Test or Unit Quiz take?
Since there is flexibility in implementing the Self-Tests and Unit Quizzes, there is also flexibility in the timing of the tests. When used for informal test-taking practice at home or in class, they may be administered as untimed tests. When administered as timed tests in class, they should take no more than 20 minutes.

How can I be sure students have mastered the grammar?
Grammar Form and Function provides a variety of tools to evaluate student mastery of the grammar. Traditional evaluation tools include the practice exercises, Self-Tests, and Unit Quizzes. To present a more complete picture of student mastery, the series also includes Your Turn activities and Writing, which illustrate how well students have internalized the grammar structures and are able to apply them in realistic tasks. Teachers can use these activities to monitor and assess students’ ability to incorporate new grammatical structures into their spoken and written discourse.

Unit Format

What is the unit structure of Grammar Form and Function?
Consult the Guide to Grammar Form and Function on pages XX-XX. This walkthrough provides a visual tour of a Student Book unit.

How many hours of instruction are in Grammar Form and Function 2?
The key to Grammar Form and Function is flexibility! The grammar structures in the Student Book may be taught in order, or teachers may rearrange units into an order that best meets their students’ needs. To shorten the number of hours of instruction, teachers may choose not to teach all of the grammar structures, or use all of the exercises provided. On the other hand, teachers may add additional hours by assigning exercises in the Workbook or on the Website. In addition, the Teacher’s Manual provides teaching suggestions and expansion activities that would add extra hours of instruction.

To obtain an instructor login for this Online Learning Center, ask your local sales representative. If you're an instructor thinking about adopting this textbook, request a free copy for review.