This chapter presents the roles of several body
systems in maintaining proper concentrations of water and electrolytes. Water
and electrolyte balance is defined, and the importance of this balance is explained
(objective 1). This chapter tells how water enters the body, how it is distributed
in various body compartments, and how it leaves the body (objectives 2 and 3).
It explains how electrolytes enter and leave the body and how their concentration
is regulated (objective 4). This chapter describes acid-base balance, mechanisms
regulating this balance, and the etiology and treatment of acid-base disturbances
Water and electrolyte balance affects and is affected
by the various chemical interactions of the body. A knowledge of the mechanisms
that control fluid and electrolyte concentrations is essential to understanding
the nature of the internal environment.