This chapter is about growth, which is an increase in size, and development, a process by which an individual
changes from one life phase to another (objective 1). This chapter explains the major events of prenatal life:
the period of cleavage, the origin of primary germ layers, the formation and function of the placenta, and the
events of the fetal stage (objectives 2-6). The physiological shifts necessary for a newborn while adjusting to
postnatal life are discussed (objective 7), and the stages of development from birth to death are described
Knowledge of growth and development complements the knowledge of the reproductive system and the understanding
of how the species survives.