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action learning  Occurs when employees,usually in teams, investigate andapply solutions to a situation that isboth real and complex, with immediaterelevance to the company.
attribution process  The perceptualprocess of deciding whether an observedbehaviour or event is caused largely byinternal or by external factors.
Behaviour modification  A theorythat explains learning in terms of theantecedents and consequences ofbehaviour.
Ccategorical thinking  The mostlyunconscious process of organizing peopleand objects into preconceived categoriesthat are stored in our long-termmemory.
extinction  Occurs when the targetbehaviour decreases because no consequencefollows it.
fundamental attribution error  Thetendency to attribute the behaviour ofother people more to internal than toexternal factors.
halo effect  A perceptual error wherebyour general impression of a person,usually based on one prominent characteristic,colours the perception of othercharacteristics of that person.
Johari Window  The model of personal and interpersonal understanding that encourages disclosure and feedback to increase the open area and reduce the blind, hidden, and unknown areas of oneself.
learning  A relatively permanentchange in behaviour that occurs as a result of a person's interaction with the environment.
learning orientation  The extent to which an organization or individual supports knowledge management, particularly opportunities to acquire knowledge through experience and experimentation.
Mental models  The broad worldviewsor "theories in-use" that peoplerely on to guide their perceptions and behaviours.
negative reinforcement  Occurs when the removal or avoidance of a consequence increases or maintains the frequency or future probability of a behaviour.
perception  The process of selecting,organizing, and interpreting informationin order to make sense of the world around us.
positive reinforcement  Occurs when the introduction of a consequence increases or maintains the frequency or future probability of a behaviour.
prejudice  The unfounded negative emotions and attitudes toward people belonging to a particular stereotyped group.
primacy effect  A perceptual error in which we quickly form an opinion of people based on the first information we receive about them.
projection bias  A perceptual error in which an individual believes that other people have the same beliefs and behaviours that he/she does.
punishment  Occurs when a consequenced ecreases the frequency or future probability of a behaviour.
Recency effect  A perceptual error in which the most recent information dominates one's perception of others.
selective attention  The process of filtering information received by our senses.
self-fulfilling prophecy  Occurs when our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations.
self-reinforcement  Occurs whenever an employee has control over a reinforcer but delays it until completing a self-set goal.
self-serving bias  A perceptual error whereby people tend to attribute their favourable outcomes to internal factors and their failures to external factors.
social identity theory  States that self-perception and social perception are shaped by a person's unique characteristics (personal identity) and membership in various groups (socialidentity).
social learning theory  A theory stating that much learning occurs by observing others and then modelling the behaviours that lead to favourable outcomes and avoiding the behavioursthat lead to punishing consequences.
stereotyping  The process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category.
tacit knowledge  Knowledge embedded in our actions and ways of thinking, and transmitted only through observation and experience.

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