Why might four-year-old Briana not receive much educational benefit from watching Big Bird on Sesame Street?
|A)||The Sesame Street lessons need to be more challenging to keep her attention.|
|B)||She is more likely to pay attention to Big Bird's appearance rather than what he is saying.|
|C)||Four-year-old children rarely become fully engaged in television programs.|
|D)||The Sesame Street information is too serious for Brenda who prefers silly, meaningless stories.|
Flavell and colleagues found that children spontaneously used rehearsal strategies as they became older. Such findings support the notion that young children fail to use strategies due to a(n)
This strategy is unique in that it helps people remember despite increasing the amount of information to be remembered:
Research in the area of eye-witness testimony has shown that children may not be reliable witnesses because __________ .
|A)||they feel that most problems are their own fault.|
|B)||they are susceptible to suggestions by others.|
|C)||interviewing lawyers are not very supportive.|
|D)||they often confuse reality and make-believe.|
Which principle of counting states that you always assign the numbers in the same order?
A child's ability to gain increasing amounts of information from a situation results from developmental interaction between
|A)||perceptual capabilities and attentional strategies.|
|B)||educational opportunities and biological maturation.|
|C)||learning experiences and reinforcement history.|
|D)||cognition and social interaction.|
Which theory advocates the belief that experience helps add information to an existing schema, thereby allowing the existing schema to become more detailed and elaborate?
Which of the following areas of memory does not tend to show improvement with development?
|A)||basic physiological structures of memory|
|B)||strategies or actions which enhance the transfer of information to long-term memory|
|C)||basic capacity in short-term memory|
|D)||world knowledge or the larger context of knowledge|
Scripts help to make behaviour
Which of the following is not a type of metacognitive knowledge?
|A)||Knowledge about tasks|
|B)||Knowledge about the self|
|C)||Knowledge about strategies|
|D)||Knowledge about language|
The ____________ approach deals with how individuals analyze their many sources of information and the numerous steps used to make sense of this information.
The directions for turning on the Nintendo game, Grandma's full name, and Marian's favourite flavor of ice cream are
|A)||stored in long-term memory.|
|B)||aspects of short-term memory.|
|C)||elements of sensory memory, as long as rehearsal occurs.|
|D)||examples of cognitive monitoring.|
When asked what happens at a birthday party, Chrissy is clear that "First you put on hats, then you play, then you sing Happy Birthday, and then you eat cake. Last you open gifts.". Chrissy is recounting a(n)
Ten-year-old MaiLee lives in Hong Kong and quickly reads the local newspaper every day. Her seven-year-old brother takes much longer as he tries to say unfamiliar words out loud. In other words, compared to her brother, MaiLee exhibits greater
A child's ability to focus on a parent's instructions even though baby brother is crying and the television is blaring is called
You show a seven-year-old a grocery shopping list of 10 items and ask him to remember them when you go to the supermarket. You indicate that he can do this better if he organizes them into categories such as fruits, dairy products, and frozen foods. You are teaching the child to improve his memory via
|C)||short-term memory rehearsal.|
Twelve-year-old Laura decides to wait to tell her parents about her poor math grade after the dinner with her mother's boss. She knows that telling them before dinner will disturb their ability to enjoy the dinner party. Here, Laura is displaying her
|A)||schemas about relationships with supervisors.|
|B)||semantic network about how parents behave.|
|C)||metacognitions about people.|
|D)||information processing strategies.|
Both you and your professor have to deliver talks at two different high schools on "How Babies Learn to Talk." Your professor, an expert on language acquisition, is likely to spend most of her preparation time
|B)||rehearsing the completed speech.|
|C)||planning in her mind what she wants to communicate and how.|
|D)||sitting by the computer trying to organize facts.|
The process of taking stock of what one is currently doing, what will be done next, and how effectively the mental activity is unfolding is referred to as
Much of the cognitive monitoring of young children comes from
|C)||the children themselves.|
Differentiation theory was proposed by _____.
Robbie Case of the University of Toronto is a(n)_______.
|C)||information processing theorist.|
Which one of the following does not belong?
|A)||sensorimotor control structures|
|C)||relational control structures|
|D)||abstract control structures|
Executive processing space has two components: _____ and ________.
|A)||operating space; short-term storage space.|
|B)||operating space; long-term storage space.|
|C)||sensory register; short-term storage space.|
|D)||sensory register; long-term storage space.|
_______ is the mental arrangement of things along a quantitative dimension.
Development of the executive functions reflects development of the ________.
Digit span is ____ for a 5-year-old and ____ for a college student.
The level of processing model specifies that learners may engage in _____ and _____.
|B)||automatic processing; effortful processing.|
|C)||short-term retention; long-term retention.|
|D)||shallow processing; deep processing.|
The correct order of information processing is:
|A)||STM, sensory register, LTM.|
|B)||LTM, STM, sensory register.|
|C)||sensory register, STM, LTM.|
|D)||sensory register, LTM, STM.|
Which one of the following does not belong?
|A)||Thinking is information processing.|
|B)||Development is driven by self-modification.|
|C)||The proper focus of study is the role of change mechanisms in development.|
|D)||Automatization is necessary for success.|