It has been shown that _____ increases the amount of abdominal fat, which is a known significant risk factor for cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Relational aggression involves acting aggressively by doing such things as withdrawing friendship, spreading vicious rumors, and excluding specific kids from peer group and it is used _____.
|A)||more often by girls|
|B)||more often by boys|
|C)||equally by boys and girls|
|D)||none of the above|
Systematically applied applications designed to solve a practical problem are called _____.
|D)||toxic environment engineering|
The field of ____ psychology studies psychological and behavioural factors in the prevention and treatment of illness and in the maintenance of health.
|A)||stage of change|
Of the following, the one which is not a health-enhancing behaviour is _____.
|B)||using condoms during sexual activity|
|D)||eating fatty diets|
Aerobic exercise _____.
|A)||elevates the heart rate and decreases the body's need for oxygen|
|B)||has been found to have few physiological benefits|
|C)||increases the body's need for oxygen|
|D)||does not promote longevity|
Dropout rates of _____ percent have been typical of virtually all exercise programs implemented.
AIDS interventions are designed to _____.
|B)||motivate people to change their sexual behaviours and convince them that they can do so|
|C)||change homosexual but not heterosexual behaviours|
|D)||increase higher-risk sexual behaviours|
Aversion therapies rely on principles of _____.
|D)||multimodal treatment approaches|
A new technique designed to help abusers increase their awareness of problems, desire to take action, and self-efficacy for doing so is called _____.
Self-blaming failure to prevent an undesirable behaviour and believing that the failure indicates an inability to resist temptation is called _____.
|D)||the abstinence violation effect|
A return to the undesirable behaviour pattern is called _____.
|C)||the abstinence violation effect|
The removal of some unpleasant person or other stimulus seems to _____ aggressive and violent behaviour.
Studies of abused Russian women have indicated that half of these women maintain that they "deserve" it. Thinking back to a concept you learned in Chapter 12, these women seem to be using the _____.
|A)||principle of deindividuation|
|D)||principle of social loafing|
The _____ suggested that direct contact by itself between the races should create greater understanding and less prejudice and discrimination.
|B)||cooperative learning programs|
|D)||interactive problem solving model|
Studies of the contact hypothesis have found that _____.
|A)||contact between groups reduces prejudice|
|B)||contact between groups reduces discrimination|
|C)||cooperative activities between groups helps to reduce both prejudice and discrimination|
|D)||it is important that one group have a higher status than the other to increase feelings of mutual understanding|
A process designed to enable parties to explore each other's perspective, to develop joint ideas for how to resolve their conflict, and to transfer those ideas into actual policies is called _____.
|A)||the contact hypothesis|
|B)||the jigsaw program|
|C)||H. O. P. E.|
Research has shown that excessive levels of stress can have detrimental effects on both psychological and physical health. Evolutionary theorists speculate that this may be because the physical mobilization system that was shaped by evolution to help people cope with life-threatening ____ stressors may not be adaptive for coping with the ____ stressors that characterize the modern world.
Due to a few excessive keg parties this year on Old McDonald's farm, the cows have gotten a little skittish about jumping over the moon during the Barnyard Games. They therefore go to animal psychotherapist Dr. Dish N. Spoon, who discovers that they are worried about their ability to deal with the stress caused by this event in the Games (because of their general drunkenness). According to work by Lazarus, the cows are using _____ to determine that they may not have what it takes this year for the big jump.
Selye, in his general adaptation syndrome theory, argued that animals will go through all of the following stages except _____ in dealing with an environmental stressor.
Recent research has found that early childhood interventions
|A)||Do not have a lasting impact|
|B)||Have no effect at all|
|C)||Have a small, temporary effect|
|D)||Have a lasting impact|
Research on early childhood intervention has found that
|A)||To be effective, the programs must start early, even several years before the child enters school|
|B)||These programs can be effective if started during the early school years|
|C)||Intervention any time during childhood has a lasting effect|
|D)||Even early, intensive interventions do not have a lasting effect|
A man realizes that his excessive gambling is causing problems, and he begins to think about changing his behaviour. According to the Stages of Change model, he would be at the stage of
Your roommate has decided to do something about his unhealthy diet and begun to make small adjustments to grocery shopping and has begun to gather information on healthy food choices. According to the Stages of Change model, your roommate would be at the stage of
Although your friend occasionally craves a cigarette, she has not smoked in a little more than 6 months. According to the Stages of Change model, your friend would be at the stage of
The health risks of excess fat is increased if the fat
|A)||Is localized in the abdomen|
|B)||Is localized in the hips and thighs|
|C)||Is localized in the buttocks|
|D)||Is evenly distributed throughout the body|
The difference between a relapse and a lapse is that a lapse refers to
|A)||The first time that a person returns to an old, unhealthy behaviour|
|B)||An occasional slip during an attempt to change behaviour|
|C)||A behaviour problem, relapse refers to drug use|
|D)||a complete loss of control over the target behaviour|
Current findings suggest that the most effective treatment approach for substance abuse problems is a/an
A client in a substance abuse program suffers a lapse, and after the lapse becomes very upset at himself, and feels a sense of failure and self-blame. This person is then
|A)||At high risk for a complete relapse|
|B)||Unlikely to lapse again because of the strong emotional reaction|
|C)||Expected to continue with the program with no important impact from the lapse|
|D)||At high risk for further lapses, but at low risk for a complete relapse|
While on a canoe trip Bob and Larry encounter some rapids. Bob considers the rapids to be fun, and Larry considers the rapids as threatening. That is, Bob and Larry differ in their
While on a canoe trip Bob and Larry encounter some rapids. Bob considers himself to be skilled enough to deal with the rapids, but Larry is unsure of his ability to cope with the rapids. That is, Bob and Larry differ in their
While on a canoe trip Bob and Larry encounter some rapids. Bob considers himself to be skilled enough to deal with the rapids, but Larry is unsure of his ability to cope with the rapids. Who will experience stress?
|C)||They will experience the same amount of stress|
|D)||Neither will experience any stress|
According to Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome, stress-related illnesses occur during the _____ stage.
You always seem to get sick with colds and the flu soon after examinations are over and you are on vacation. This is consistent with having entered the _____ stage.
The stage of the stress response that allows you to continue to function despite the presence of stress is the stage of
Exposure to stressors can lead to
|A)||Only psychological illnesses|
|B)||Psychological and physical illnesses|
|C)||Only physical illnesses|
|D)||Immune disorders, but not other health problems|
Your roommate never seems to get sick, despite exposure to some major stressors. Your roommate argues that they have a wide and supportive group of friends and a very supportive family. Their social support would indeed be expected to
|A)||Enhance psychological health, but cannot account for their god physical health|
|B)||Enhance their physical health, but have little impact on their psychological health|
|C)||Enhance their psychological and physical health|
|D)||Not be important; the important factor is stress, not social support|
People who score high in _____ are at a lower risk for stress-induced depression and anxiety.
Bob notices that whenever he is near the trees at his family's cottage he gets a lot of insect bites, but when he is near the water he receives fewer painful bites. Now that he feels some measure of control
|A)||Bob will experience less stress|
|B)||Bob will enter the resistance stage of the stress response|
|C)||Bob's stress response will return to the alarm stage|
|D)||Bob's stress levels will change only if the noticed correlation is indeed true|
Which of the following coping strategies would most effectively reduce the stress someone is experiencing about an upcoming calculus exam?
|A)||Imagining winning the lottery, so they wouldn't have to pass calculus, graduate, and start a career.|
|B)||Denying that they are unprepared and unsure of calculus|
|C)||Deciding to finally clean the apartment rather than study|
|D)||Taking time out from studying to practice a relaxation technique|
Overall, the least effective category of stress coping strategies is
|C)||Seeking social support|
Research has found that engaging in violent behaviour is associated with violence is
|A)||High levels of dopamine|
|B)||High levels of GABA|
|C)||Low levels of serotonin|
|D)||Low levels of norepinephrine|
Intergroup conflict an be reduced by
|A)||Bringing equal status members of each group in contact with each other|
|B)||Getting to know a member of the other group, regardless of status|
|C)||Explaining that the group differences are not important|
|D)||Increasing exposure to the other group|
Larry considers his impending MCAT an important and demanding challenge. Larry is unsure if he can perform the necessary problem solving and memory tasks to get a good MCAT score. That is, Larry is questioning his
Relational aggression refers to
|A)||Violence against a family member|
|B)||Violence that is triggered by anger or frustration|
|C)||Spreading rumours, withdrawing friendship and social ostracism|
|D)||Increasing levels of aggression beyond those of your opponent|