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Multiple Choice Quiz
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Which best demonstrates the basic principle of cephalocaudal development?
A)an infant first producing an endogenous smile, then an exogenous smile, then a laugh
B)an infant first being able to raise the head, then sit up, then stand up
C)an infant obtaining visual skills, then olfactory skills, then auditory skills
D)an infant cooing, then babbling, then the first word, then language
The proximodistal progression pattern is seen in children's:
A)drawings, which are first done using the entire arm, and eventually using only the wrist and fingers.
B)toileting behaviour, which proceeds from urine control to bowel control.
C)head size, which originally comprises about one-fourth of the body, and eventually only one-eighth of the body.
D)memory, which proceeds from sensory store to short-term to long-term store.
Which statement most accurately describes height and weight changes during infancy?
A)Both increase more rapidly during the second year than during the first year.
B)Girls increase in height and weight faster than boys do during infancy.
C)The sexes grow at the same rate during infancy.
D)Both height and weight increase more rapidly during the first year than during the second year.
Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of the infant brain?
A)Increasing experience increases the number of neurons.
B)Increasing experience increases the number of connections between neurons.
C)The dendrites branch out with increasing age.
D)Neurotransmitters change with increasing age.
The process of encasing axons with fat cells, which protects nerve cells and helps nerve impulses travel faster, is referred to as:
A)neuronal growth.
Charles Nelson has made great strides in finding out about the brain's development in infancy by using:
A)PET scans.
D)CT scans.
The most extensive research on brain lateralization has focused on:
B)visual coordination.
D)motor coordination.
Research on language processing in the brain has found that:
A)virtually all language is carried out in the left hemisphere.
B)virtually all language is carried out in the right hemisphere.
C)in normal people, the complex thinking required to produce language results from communication between both hemispheres.
D)in normal people, tasks involving logical thinking are carried out in the left hemisphere and those involving creative thinking occur in the right hemisphere.
Neuroscientists believe that what wires the brain is:
A)genetic heritage.
B)repeated experience.
C)constant stimulation.
D)a delicate balance of proteins and amino acids.
If an alien randomly dropped in on ten newborns, it might conclude that humans spend their entire first months of life:
Which statement most accurately portrays the sleep-wake cycle of infants?
A)Infants sleep less as they grow older.
B)Newborn sleep is reflexive, whereas infant sleep is intentional.
C)Infants eventually sleep more during the day than they do at night.
D)Infants spend less time sleeping than do adults.
Cross-cultural research demonstrates that infant sleep patterns around the world:
A)are the same.
B)differ for each culture.
C)may relate to mother-child contact.
D)have been steadily changing as humans evolve.
Sleep researchers have found that:
A)infants and adults exhibit very similar patterns of REM sleep.
B)infants engage in more REM sleep than adults.
C)adults engage in more REM sleep than infants.
D)adults enter REM sleep earlier in the sleep cycle than infants do.
Since child-health experts began recommending that infants __________, the frequency of SIDS has decreased.
A)sleep on their stomachs
B)sleep on their backs
C)sleep on their sides
D)do not sleep with their mothers
Juan was a low-birthweight infant, while Serge was a premature infant. Which statement applies to them?
A)Neither is vulnerable to SIDS.
B)Juan is less vulnerable to SIDS than Serge.
C)Juan is more vulnerable to SIDS than Serge.
D)Both are vulnerable to SIDS.
Infants require about ____ joules a day for each kilogram they weigh.
The Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, and Health Canada all recommend exclusive breast-feeding for AT LEAST:
A)the first month
B)the first four months
C)the first year
D)the first and second year
Which statement best characterizes infant reflexes?
A)Reflexes are vestigial remnants of early evolutionary processes.
B)Reflexes are genetically carried survival mechanisms.
C)Modern infants rely more on learning than on reflexes.
D)All reflexes disappear by the end of infancy.
Charlie turns his head, opens his mouth, and begins sucking when his cheek is stroked. Charlie is demonstrating which reflex?
C)tonic neck
Which infant motor event typically occurs first?
A)stands with support
B)cruises around furniture
C)rolls over
D)sits without support
Most pediatricians recommend that parents:
A)slowly ease their babies into structured exercise regimes.
B)enroll their babies in exercise classes.
C)use exercise sessions as a way to bond with their babies.
D)avoid structured exercise classes for babies.
As a researcher who uses the developmental biodynamics perspective, Dr. Sandee would:
A)describe the ages at which various motor achievements are reached.
B)describe universal milestones (e.g., crawling, walking) as a process of adaptation.
C)explain the ages at which various motor achievements are reached as a result of brain maturation.
D)explain the ages at which various motor achievements are reached as a result of maturation of the central nervous system.
_________ occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors.
C)Intermodal perception
D)Perceptual-motor coupling
Was William James right when he proclaimed that newborns experience a "blooming, buzzing" world of confusion?
A)No, because infants' perception of visual information is more advanced than previously thought.
B)Yes, because infants' visual acuity is less than that of adults.
C)Yes, because infants sense the world but do not perceive it.
D)No, because infants' reflexes allow for organization into perceptual categories.
Robert Fantz (1963) found that infants as young as 2 days old:
A)were able to focus on their mothers' eyes.
B)were able to distinguish contour.
C)showed a preference for patterned stimuli over plain stimuli.
D)began to perceive the oval shape of the head.
In Gibson and Walk's (1960) experiment, infants placed on one side of a visual cliff refused to go to their mothers who were coaxing them from the other side. This result was cited as evidence for:
A)depth perception.
B)failure of visual acuity.
C)inability to hear at a distance.
D)inability to crawl.
What evidence indicates that a fetus can hear?
A)A fetus moves when a loud noise occurs.
B)Newborns prefer their mother's voice to strangers' voices.
C)Hearing is more sensitive and better developed among newborns who have been experimentally stimulated before birth
D)Newborns prefer to hear stories that were read to them in their mother's womb.
One current controversy concerning the medical treatment of infants involves:
A)the use of small amounts of cocaine to stimulate the heart rate of sluggish neonates.
B)the rule of now allowing mothers to hold their at-risk low-birthweight neonate immediately after birth.
C)not using any anesthetics when performing surgery on young infants.
D)the fact that a mother's opinion outweighs a father's when it comes to a decision of whether a child should be given a heart transplant.
Which of the following smells do infants like the LEAST?
C)their mother's milk
Jessica turned her head when she heard footsteps in the hall, then she smiled when she saw her mother come into the room. This demonstrates ________ perception.
Jean Piaget gathered the information for his theories about cognitive development by:
A)reviewing the literature on cognitive development.
B)surveying thousands of parents.
C)observing his own children.
D)testing hundreds of children in his laboratory.
In a Piagetian model, __________ is a cognitive structure that helps individuals organize and understand their experiences.
A)a memory
B)an image
D)a scheme
Piaget's theory is a qualitative theory of cognitive development, which means that it:
A)uses standardized tests to measure and describe thought.
B)explains what kinds of knowledge are typical of children at different ages.
C)identifies different kinds of thinking children perform at different ages.
D)provides ways to determine how well children think at different stages.
According to Piaget, during the first sensorimotor substage, infants' behaviours are:
By chance, Abigail shook her rattle. She then began to repeat this action of shaking her rattle. As a normal infant, Abigail is in which substage?
B)first habits and primary circular reactions
C)secondary circular reactions
D)coordination of secondary circular reactions
Laurent has problems retrieving a ball that rolled out of reach, so he uses a Tinkertoy stick to hit it. He is in which substage?
A)primary circular reactions
B)secondary circular reactions
C)coordination of secondary circular reactions
D)tertiary circular reactions
When D'Andre was 5 months old, he looked at a toy train, but when his view of the train was blocked, he did not search for it. Now that he is 9 months old he does look for it, reflecting the presence of:
A)object permanence.
Much of the new research on cognitive development in children suggests that:
A)Piaget's view was accurate.
B)Piaget's view was wrong.
C)Piaget's view needs to be modified.
D)it is impossible to replicate Piaget's research because it was done primarily on his three children.
Research by Renée Baillargeon has found that:
A)infants as young as 4 months of age have intermodal perception.
B)infants as young as 4 months of age expect objects to be substantial and permanent.
C)equipment for testing children under 4 months of age is not yet sophisticated enough to provide useful information about perception.
D)infants are not able to see objects as bounded, unitary, solid, and separate from their background until they are at least 4 months old.
Carolyn Rovee-Collier (1987) has demonstrated:
A)young infants' inability to learn from classical conditioning.
B)young infants' inability to learn from operant conditioning.
C)how infants can retain information through classical conditioning.
D)how infants can retain information through operant conditioning.
________ occurs when repeated exposure to the same stimulus results in a reduced reaction to that stimulus.
B)Object permanence
Canadian psychologist Megan Easterbrook and her colleagues (1999) examined newborns' ability to perceive images of normal and scrambled faces. They found that:
A)newborns habituated quicker to normal faces.
B)newborns habituated quicker to scrambled faces.
C)newborns showed a preference for both normal and scrambled faces over a blank card.
D)it was impossible to study habituation in newborns.
Research by Andrew Meltzoff (1992, 1999) showing the infant's ability to imitate adult facial expressions shortly after birth demonstrates that:
A)imitative abilities are learned quickly.
B)imitation has a biological base.
C)infants have a full range of emotional expression at birth.
D)imitation is a form of emotional expression.
Meltzoff has found that infants demonstrate the ability to engage in deferred imitation by age ____ months.
Lorenzo is a normal 4-month-old infant. Thus we would expect him to have _________ memory.
A)both implicit and explicit
B)neither implicit nor explicit
C)implicit but not explicit
D)explicit but not implicit
Sarula is 18 years old. She finds it frustrating that she cannot remember anything prior to the time she was 3 years old. According to the research on memory:
A)she is "normal," since most adults cannot remember anything from the first 3 years of their life.
B)her memory is deficient, since it is common for adults to remember back to the time when they were at least 2 years old.
C)she should be concerned, because it appears she is suffering from a loss of memory called infantile amnesia.
D)her inability to remember before age 3 may be an indicator that she was sexually molested as an infant.
The developmental quotient (DQ) is a global developmental score that combines subscores in all of the following domains EXCEPT:
The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence:
A)estimates intelligence by comparing the amount of time a baby looks at a new object and the amount of time spent looking at a familiar object.
B)assesses infants' overall development in terms of motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains.
C)has been successful at measuring infant intelligence in industrialized nations, but not in third-world countries.
D)was the first measure of infant intelligence.
The _________ has been predictive of academic achievement at 6 or 8 years of age.
A)Piagetian Sensorimotor Scales
B)Bayley Scales of Infant Development
C)Gesell Developmental Schedules
D)Brazelton Neonatal Behaviour Assessment Scales
Infant intelligence scales are useful for all of the following EXCEPT:
A)assessing the effects of malnutrition.
B)predicting childhood intelligence.
C)determining developmental effects of environmental stimulation.
D)measuring detrimental effects of a mother's prenatal drug-taking habits.
Language is most accurately defined as a system of __________ that allows for communication with others.
The child's first word is typically uttered at around __________ months.
A)3 to 6
B)6 to 9
C)9 to 10
D)10 to 15
Which statement about the two-word utterances of 18- to 24-month old children is NOT correct?
A)The child relies heavily on gesture, tone, and context to help convey meaning.
B)They are used by children around the world.
C)They are difficult for adults to understand.
D)They can communicate a wealth of meaning.
The strongest evidence for the biological basis of language is that:
A)a language acquisition device (LAD) has been located in the brain's temporal lobe.
B)children all over the world reach language milestones at about the same time and in the same order.
C)language represents chains of responses and imitation.
D)children from middle-income professional and welfare backgrounds develop normally in terms of language.
Language acquisition researchers believe children acquire their native language:
A)with systematic reinforcement.
B)with a great deal of encouragement.
C)with much assistance.
D)without explicit teaching.
In their study of language development in children, Hart and Risley (1995) found that:
A)middle-income professional parents spent almost twice as much time communicating with their children as the welfare parents did.
B)welfare parents spent almost twice as much time communicating with their children as the middle-income professional parents did.
C)there were few differences between the amount of time middle-income professional parents and welfare parents spent communicating with their children.
D)the amount of time that parents spent communicating with their children made little difference in terms of the children's later language abilities.
Dr. Jones claims Marie can make a negative statement because that use was reinforced. Dr. Jones most likely takes which view?
Which of the following statements is NOT correct about infant-directed speech?
A)It is sometimes called "parentese."
B)It involves the use of simple words and sentences.
C)Much of it is automatic when an adult is talking to a baby.
D)It has a lower than normal pitch.
When Jennifer said, "The deer was running," Mother asked, "Where was the deer running?" Mother's strategy is:

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