Preface to the Instructor
If you teach nutrition, you undoubtedly already find it a fascinating subject. However, nutrition can also be quite frustrating to teach. Claims and counterclaims abound regarding the need for certain constituents in our diets. Sodium is a good example. One group of researchers promotes a low-sodium diet for the general population as an effective measure against hypertension. Other groups state that this is much less of a concern compared to other habits, such as inactivity and adult weight gain. How does an instructor adequately convey seemingly conflicting messages to introductory students?
As an author and teacher, I too am aware of conflicting opinions in our field and thus draw on as many sources as possible in the continual updating of this textbook, now in its fifth edition. I have incorporated much new material, especially from recently published articles in major nutrition and medical journals; the 9th edition of Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, edited by Shils, Olson, Shike; and Present Knowledge in Nutrition, edited by Bowman and Russell. In addition, available information on the latest Dietary Reference Intake revisions to the 1989 RDA is incorporated where appropriate.
One prominent theme in nutrition research today is individuality. Not all of us, for example, find that saturated fat in our diets raises our blood cholesterol values above recommended standards. Each person responds differently, often idiosyncratically, to nutrients, and I try to reinforce this point throughout the book.
Moreover even at this basic level, the text's discussions do not assume that all nutrition students are alike. Chapter content and features, such as Rate Your Plate, repeatedly ask students to learn more about themselves and their health status and to use their new knowledge to improve their health. After reading this textbook, students should be better equipped to understand how the nutrition information on the evening news, on cereal boxes, in popular magazines, and by government agencies applies to them. My goal is for students to understand that their knowledge of nutrition will allow them to evaluate and personalize nutrition information, rather than follow every guideline issued for an entire population. After all, a population by definition consists of individuals with varying genetic and cultural backgrounds, and these individuals have varying responses to diet.
As a final note on helping students bring nutrition down to a personal level, the book covers important questions students often bring to class, concerning topics such as ethnic diets, eating disorders, supplements, alternative therapies, vegetarianism, diets for athletes, and fad diets. Regardless of topic, the overall emphasis remains the same-the importance of understanding one's food choices and modifying one's diet to best meet personal needs.
Contemporary Nutrition is designed for a non-majors audience, particularly those students with little or no background in college-level chemistry, physiology, or human biology. Those topics have, for the most part, been kept to a minimum and explained in a simple, straightforward manner wherever necessary. I have been careful to include the basic scientific foundation needed to adequately comprehend certain topics in nutrition, such as a basic discussion of protein synthesis in Ch. 6.
Because of the flexible chapter organization and pedagogical features, this book can be used with students of diverse educational backgrounds and interests. Real-life examples have been incorporated to appeal to the interest of health majors, human ecology majors, human performance majors, and nursing students, as well as those in other health-related fields.
This book is organized into five parts that reflect the major topics typically covered in an introduction to the study of nutrition:
Part One Nutrition: A Key to Health Part Two The Energy-Yielding Nutrients and Alcohol Part Three Energy: Balance and Imbalance Part Four Nutrition: A Focus on Life Stages Part Five Nutrition: Beyond the Nutrients
The Table of Contents also reflects the inclusion of two chapters not typically found in introductory textbooks: Chapter 7, Alcohol and Chapter 12, Eating Disorders. The expanded discussion of these topics is the result of feedback from instructors who felt it was important to provide their students with a thorough, balanced discussion of these relevant topics.
Although most frequently used in semester-long courses, the text's organization allows instructors to omit Parts or Chapters to fit the needs of quarter-length courses. I have also tried as much as possible to make each chapter function independently so that instructors can cover the material in the order that best fits their particular course needs.
New to This Edition
Each edition of Contemporary Nutrition witnesses a profusion of new and rapidly changing information from the world of nutrition science. To give students an accurate picture of nutrition today, it is important to provide them with the most up-to-date information available. With the help of colleagues, reviewers, and my own students, I continually scour the latest research and update the text accordingly. I also carefully consider the feedback of instructors using this text to refine the content to better meet the needs of today's students. The following list highlights just some of the changes and updates that you will find in the fifth edition of Contemporary Nutrition:
Chapter 1, What You Eat and Why
More examples of the metric system in everyday life
The important influence of one's psychological state on satiety and a practical result of that relationship
The growing use of 'energy bars' by adults
Chapter 2, Tools for Designing a Healthy Diet
Current attention to energy density in the diet
Pyramids promoted by the Mayo Clinic and the new book by Dr. Walter Willet
New figure showing graphic representation of appropriate serving sizes
Chapter 3, The Human Body: A Nutrition Perspective
Expanded coverage of the cell and its various organelles
Expanded coverage of the nervous system
Expanded coverage of the cardiovascular system
Expanded coverage of the renal system
Chapter 4, Carbohydrates
The new sugar replacement sucralose (Splenda)
A Table to estimate fiber intake
The glycemic index is developed in detail
Chapter 5, Lipids
Latest dietary advice from the American Heart Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program
An example of a diet containing 40% of calories from fat as advocated by Dr. Walter Willet and for those people with Syndrome X
Practical use of the new margarines with plant sterols
Chapter 6, Proteins
New Nutrition Insight on soy
Simple discussion and new figure on protein synthesis
Vegetarian pyramid from Oldways Preservation & Trust
Chapter 7, Alcohol
New chapter is an expanded version of a Nutrition Issue in the previous edition
Expanded look at the benefits and risks of use of alcohol
Risks of binge drinking
Figure showing the relationship of alcohol intake and blood-alcohol concentration
Chapter 8, Vitamins
Photo grouping showing the clinical results of various vitamin and mineral deficiencies
The latest vitamin recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board
Expanded list of key sources of vitamins
Chapter 9, Water and Major Minerals
The latest recommendations for minerals from The Food and Nutrition Board
Expanded list of rich sources of minerals
Table on estimation of calcium intake
Chapter 10, Weight Control
Latest statistics regarding the growing problem of obesity in North America
New websites for students to explore
New annotated readings for further information
Chapter 11, Nutrition: Fitness and Sports
Growing use of 'energy' bars and gels
Latest fluid replacement guidelines
Expanded list of popular ergogenic aids in the Nutrition Issue
Chapter 12, Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Other Conditions
Expanded discussion of disordered eating now begins the chapter
Latest guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association
Chapter 13, Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Expanded discussion of the problems of children born small-for-gestational age
More advantages of breastfeeding for the infant and mother
Chapter 14, Nutrition From Infancy through Adolescence
The latest growth charts
Implications of the growing problem of type 2 diabetes in childhood
Use of food labels to identify potential food allergens
Chapter 15, Nutrition during Adulthood
Tufts University pyramid for older adults
Nutrition Issue now discusses alternative medical practices
New Table summarizes the discussion of the effects of aging
Chapter 16, Food Safety
Expanded list of agents that cause food-borne illness
Updated discussion of the risks and benefits of caffeine use
New Tables summarize the discussion of food additives and environmental contaminants
Chapter 17, Undernutrition Throughout the World
Update on welfare reform and it's relation to hunger
Expanded discussion of biotechnology and use of genetically modified organisms
Learning and Study Aids
Because of the vast array of new terms and unfamiliar concepts introductory students will encounter in their study of nutrition, it is important that a textbook help students focus their study. In the textbook I attempt to guide students through the material by stressing the real-life relevance and by providing pedagogical support that can enhance their study habits. The sample pages below highlight a variety of features designed to make the material more accessible to students. In addition each diagram and photograph was carefully scrutinized to help students create mental images of key content.
Each chapter opens with an Overview that conveys the significance of the nutrition concepts about to covered.
The Outline provides a detailed preview of the material to be covered in the chapter and helps students mentally organize the concepts.
The Chapter Objectives serve as guideposts to alert students to the knowledge they should expect to gain from carefully studying the chapter.
Refresh Your Memory
To reinforce their understanding, students can turn to the Refresh Your Memory section for related topics covered in earlier chapters.
Brief Real-Life Scenarios at the beginning of each chapter engage students by asking them to consider the nutritional implications of a real-life situation.
Many of the illustrations and photographs are new in this edition. They have been carefully selected and beautifully rendered to visually support the textual content.
Attractive New Design
The fifth edition of Contemporary Nutrition features a beautiful and functional new design. Its clean, uncluttered look skillfully integrates the dynamic features of the textbook.
Critical Thinking Questions
As students read the text, Critical Thinking Questions challenge them to apply their newly acquired knowledge in the context of real-life circumstances. Answers to these can be found at the end of the book.
At key points, brief Concept Checks allow students to mentally summarize what they have learned before proceeding to the next topic in the chapter.
Short asides, called Another Bite, give students a bit more depth on topics of personal interest.
Definitions of key concepts and terms are found in the margin as they are first introduced in the text. All appear in the Glossary at the end of the book.
Rate Your Plate
Each chapter concludes with two Rate Your Plate activities that help students internalize nutrition concepts to their own lives.
As a capstone to each chapter, the Nutrition Issue provides an in-depth look at important nutritional issues, such as Ergogenic Aids and Binge Drinking.
Nutrition science is constantly evolving, and the classroom and students of today place new expectations on instructors. To help you meet these challenges, McGraw-Hill has created a suite of supplements tailored to Contemporary Nutrition that are intended to help you maximize your time in and out of the classroom.
Computerized Testing CD
Powerful new test generating software gives you greater flexibility in creating a wide variety of exam types and includes over 1,500 questions based upon the chapter content in Contemporary Nutrition.
Online Learning Center (www.mhhe.com/wardlawcont5)
In addition to a wealth of student-oriented study materials, the Online Learning Center for Contemporary Nutrition offers instructors an array of useful online teaching aids, such as chapter outlines, suggested activities, www links, and a correlation guide that coordinates all available supplement materials by chapter.
Digital Content Manager CD
If you're looking for illustrations, photographs, tables, and animations to incorporate into your lecture presentations, handouts, or quizzes, this easy-to-use CD contains hundreds of digital assets from Contemporary Nutrition, as well as other McGraw-Hill nutrition textbooks. Simply click on the appropriate chapter folder and select the type of image you are looking for (e.g., table), and you're ready to import the image into the application of your choice. It's that easy.
PowerPoint Lecture Outlines
Accessible from either the Online Learning Center or the Digital Content Manager CD, a complete PowerPoint lecture outline with illustrations from the textbook is available for every chapter. Use the outline as is or modify it to match your specific course needs.
More than 200 illustrations and tables from Contemporary Nutrition, as well as other McGraw-Hill Nutrition texts, are available to support your classroom presentations. Artwork and labels have been enlarged to aid in classroom viewing.
PageOut is a course website development center that allows you to create your course web site. No need to learn special coding; simply fill in templates and you can create or modify content to fit your precise course needs. Contact your local McGraw-Hill representative for more information.
If you have questions about Contemporary Nutrition or the supplements that accompany it, please contact your local McGraw-Hill representative. To find out how to contact your local representative, check out www.mhhe.com/catalogs/rep.
How can you make the most of the time you allot for studying for your nutrition course? To complement your in-class experience, McGraw-Hill has the solutions you need to maximize your study efforts and help improve your grades. Go into exams feeling confident that you have mastered the course material and leave the course prepared to make intelligent choices about your health and nutrition.
Online Learning Center (www.mhhe.com.wardlawcont5)
Studying Carbohydrates this week? Check out the Online Learning Center's Chapter 4, Carbohydrates, and you'll find a terrific quiz with automatic feedback, a crossword puzzle and flashcards to help you master new terms, links to useful web sites, animations, and much more. All the study resources that you will need are conveniently correlated to each chapter in Contemporary Nutrition.
Complete assignments or just see how your food choices check out with the FoodWise diet analysis software. Available for Windows and Macintosh computers, this easy-to-use product walks you through everything you need to analyze the foods you eat.
A Request to Those Who Use This Textbook
As you might imagine, it is difficult to range across the vast areas of nutrition science, following all the various controversies and new developments. I try my best but realize that sometimes I miss a side of an argument that deserves attention. If, as you read this book, you find content that you question or believe warrants a more detailed or broader look, feel free to contact me.
Dr. Gordon M. Wardlaw
The Ohio State University
Columbus, OH 43210
Phone: (614) 292-8142
Fax: (614) 292-0210
Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgSpecial Acknowledgements Thank You to Reviewers
As with the earlier editions, my goal is provide the most accurate, up-to-date, and useful textbook possible. These ambitious goals would not be possible without the meticulous, professional assistance of my colleagues who have served as reviewers of this manuscript and previous editions. I, along with my editors, would like to recognize and sincerely thank those people whose suggestions and insights did so much to guide the direction of this fifth edition.
List of Reviewers
The first edition of this book began with a dream. Each new edition is fostered by the excitement that improvements bring, and ends with the satisfaction of knowing that we have produced an innovative textbook that will benefit students beginning their study of nutrition.
American River College
Sara Long Anderson
Southern Illinois University Carbondale