McGraw-Hill OnlineMcGraw-Hill Higher EducationLearning Center
Student Center | Instructor Center | Information Center | Home
Professional Resources
PowerWeb
Guide To Electronic Research
Psychology Career Opportunitie
Study Skills Primer
Developmental Image Gallery
Guideposts for Study
Chapter Outline
Multiple Choice Quiz
Fill in the Blank
True or False
Through Psychologists' Eyes
What's Your View
Web Links
Poll
Feedback
Help Center


Child Development Book Cover
Child Development: A Topical Approach
Diane E. Papalia
Dana L. Gross, St. Olaf’s College
Ruth Duskin Feldman

About Child Development
Theory and Research

Multiple Choice



1

Which of the following statements regarding theories is true?
A)Theories organize the information gathered by research.
B)Theories are a source of hypotheses.
C)Theories are a set of logically related concepts or statements that attempt to describe and explain development and predict behavior.
D)all of the above
2

Which of the following is a basic issue that influences the way a theory chooses to explain development?
A)the belief as to whether children are active or passive in their development
B)the question of whether development is continuous or occurs in stages
C)the relative weight given to hereditary versus environmental explanations of behavior
D)all of the above
3

The mechanistic model of development is associated with which philosopher's perspective?
A)John Locke
B)Jean Jacques Rousseau
C)both a and b
D)neither a nor b
4

The ______ perspective emphasizes historical, social, and cultural effects on human development.
A)psychoanalytic
B)contextual
C)sociobiological
D)cognitive
5

Which of the following developmental psychologists most represents the learning perspective of human development?
A)Dr. Anderson, who believes that human beings have built-in mechanisms to survive, and who suggests that biological and evolutionary bases exist for behavior.
B)Dr. Burns, who suggests that behavior is controlled by powerful unconscious forces and motives.
C)Dr. Charrington, who proposes that humans develop by observing and imitating models, as well as by responding to events in their environments.
D)Dr. Davidson, who teaches that human beings are processors of symbols that become increasingly sophisticated throughout childhood and adolescence.
6

The correct sequence of Freud's psychosexual stages is
A)oral, phallic, anal, latency, genital
B)oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
C)oral, anal, genital, phallic, latency
D)oral, genital, phallic, anal, latency
7

In Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, which of the following is not a childhood stage?
A)industry versus inferiority
B)autonomy versus shame
C)trust versus mistrust
D)generativity versus stagnation
8

Piaget's stages of cognitive development fall in which order?
A)sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations
B)preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor
C)sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operations, concrete operations
D)preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operations, formal operations
9

In Freud's theory, the ______ best describes a person's conscience.
A)id
B)superego
C)ego
D)defense mechanism
10

When five-year-old Will's new baby sister arrives home, Will begins to suck his thumb. This is an example of which Freudian defense mechanism?
A)projection
B)reaction formation
C)repression
D)regression
11

______ conditioning is a type of associative learning.
A)Classical
B)Operant
C)both a and b
D)neither a nor b
12

According to principles of operant conditioning, ______ increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated.
A)positive reinforcement
B)negative reinforcement
C)punishment
D)both a and b
13

Which of the following best describes learning that occurs through observing and imitating others?
A)classical conditioning
B)operant conditioning
C)social learning
D)both a and b
14

Which child best represents Piaget's stage of concrete operations?
A)Abigail, who can solve problems logically if they are focused in the here and now, but has difficulty thinking abstractly.
B)Beatrice, who uses her five senses and motor skills to organize her activities in relation to her environment.
C)Chuck, who is able to respond to hypothetical questions and think about possibilities.
D)Darius, who is using his developing language skills in imaginative play, as well as using symbols to represent people, places, and events.
15

Fernanda Acosta is a cognitive scientist who develops computational models to analyze the steps children go through in gathering, storing, and retrieving data. She would best be described as working from the ______ approach.
A)Piagetian
B)neo-Piagetian
C)cognitive neuroscience
D)information-processing
16

In bioecological theory, the ______ is the interaction of two or more microsystems.
A)exosystem
B)mesosytem
C)chronosystem
D)macrosystem
17

A teacher provides temporary support to a student until the child can do the task on his own. This is an example of ______.
A)egocentrism
B)ethology
C)scaffolding
D)survival of the fittest
18

In which stage of the scientific method does the researcher focus on determining whether or not information collected in her research study supports her hypothesis?
A)disseminating findings
B)identifying a problem to be studied
C)analyzing data
D)collecting data
19

In which method of data collection are participants watched in their normal setting with no attempt to manipulate behavior?
A)naturalistic observation
B)laboratory observation
C)self-report
D)behavioral measures
20

Margaret Mead's research design is best described as a(n) ______.
A)case study
B)ethnographic study
C)correlational study
D)experiment
21

Regarding correlations, which of the following statements is false?
A)Correlations can range from ---1.0 to +1.0.
B)Perfect correlations are rare.
C)Correlations are expressed in terms of direction and magnitude.
D)Positive correlations indicate stronger relationships than negative correlations.
22

In an experiment, the ______ group is exposed to the treatment.
A)experimental
B)control
C)both a and b
D)neither a nor b