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Child Development Book Cover
Child Development: A Topical Approach
Diane E. Papalia
Dana L. Gross, St. Olaf’s College
Ruth Duskin Feldman

Cognitive Development
Theories of Cognitive Development: Piaget and Vygotsky

Multiple Choice



1

According to Piaget, ______ is how the child handles new information that seems to conflict with what s/he already knows.
A)adaptation
B)organization
C)conservation
D)equilibration
2

______, the constant striving for a stable balance, dictates a shift for children from assimilation to accommodation.
A)Adaptation
B)Organization
C)Conservation
D)Equilibration
3

According to Piaget, children would proceed through which sequence of stages in their cognitive development?
A)sensorimotor, concrete operations, formal operations, preoperations
B)sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations
C)preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor
D)sensorimotor, preoperations, formal operations, concrete operations
4

Ten-year-old Maya would be expected to be in which stage of cognitive development?
A)formal operations
B)preoperations
C)concrete operations
D)sensorimotor
5

Which of the following best describes development during the preoperations period of cognitive development?
A)The child can think abstractly, deal with hypothetical situations, and think about possibilities.
B)The child gradually becomes able to organize activities in relation to the environment through the five senses and motor skills.
C)The child can solve problems logically if they are focused on the here and now, but cannot think abstractly.
D)The child develops a representational system and uses symbols to represent people, places, and events.
6

The sensorimotor stage consists of ______ substages.
A)three
B)four
C)six
D)eight
7

Which child is demonstrating a secondary circular reaction?
A)Andi who begins sucking when her bottle is placed in her mouth.
B)Benjamin who, when given a bottle instead of his mother's breast, is able to adjust his style of sucking to the rubber nipple.
C)Christi who pushes Cheerios over the edge of her high chair one at time and watches as they fall to the floor.
D)All of the above are examples of secondary circular reactions.
8

If 16-month-old Jaime's development is average, he would be expected to be in which of Piaget's stages?
A)primary circular reactions
B)tertiary circular reactions
C)mental combinations
D)preoperations
9

Which best describes tertiary circular reaction?
A)An action and response both involve the infant's own body.
B)An action gets one pleasing result, leading baby to perform similar actions to get similar results.
C)An action gets a response from another person or object, leading the baby to repeat the original action.
D)An action gets no response, so the behavior is extinguished.
10

All but which of the following describe the sixth substage of the preoperational period?
A)It is a transition into the preoperational stage of early childhood.
B)During this stage, representational ability blossoms.
C)It is associated with ages 18 months to 2 years.
D)Deferred imitation will not develop until this stage is completed.
11

_______ experiments are conducted to examine infants' cognitive abilities.
A)Violations of expectations
B)Conservation
C)The three-mountain task
D)Scaffolding
12

Piaget believed that the "A, not-B" error was a sign of
A)incomplete understanding of the object concept
B)an egocentric view of spatial relations
C)both a and b
D)neither a nor b
13

Object permanence is to ______ as hypothetical-deductive reasoning is to ______.
A)infancy/adolescence
B)infancy/middle childhood
C)early childhood/middle childhood
D)early childhood/adolescence
14

Egocentric is to ______ as allocentric is to ______.
A)subjective/subjective
B)objective/objective
C)objective/subjective
D)subjective/objective
15

Regarding research on Piaget's stage of sensorimotor development, which of the following statements is false?
A)Research generally supports Piaget's timetable of spatial development.
B)Some research suggests that a mechanism for recognizing causality exists much earlier than Piaget indicated.
C)Violations-of-expectations research supports Piaget's claim that children develop an understanding of number during the sixth substage.
D)Imitation abilities appear earlier than Piaget suggested.
16

Current brain research suggests that object permanence seems to be seated in the ______.
A)hippocampus
B)prefrontal cortex
C)brain stem
D)occipital lobe
17

Which of the following children is demonstrating the symbolic function?
A)Andrea who is using deferred imitation.
B)Bill who is engaging in pretend play with his sister.
C)Charisse who uses words to communicate with her caregiver.
D)all of the above
18

Preschool children will often view one situation as the basis for another, simply because they occur close together in time. When a child does this, she is using ______.
A)reasoning by transduction
B)the dual representation hypothesis
C)the symbolic function
D)hypothetical-deductive reasoning
19

Four-year-old Tamara's failure to understand conservation is explained by which limitation of preoperational thinking?
A)centration
B)reversibility
C)difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy
D)animism
20

The ability to see the relationship between a whole and its parts, characteristic of the concrete operations period, is called ______.
A)seriation
B)inductive reasoning
C)class inclusion
D)transitive inference
21

Piaget used the ______ to assess the achievement of formal operations.
A)three-mountain task
B)pendulum problem
C)conservation task
D)scaffolding situation
22

All but which of the following statements are consistent with Vygotsky's approach to explaining cognitive development?
A)Children are like apprentices, managing much of their own learning by observing adults, siblings, and peers.
B)Language is a key to the collaborative learning in which children engage.
C)Formal schooling is the main avenue of cognitive development during early childhood.
D)Scaffolding and guided participation can be used to help children learn.