According to Piaget, ______ is how the child handles new information that seems to conflict with what s/he already knows.
______, the constant striving for a stable balance, dictates a shift for children from assimilation to accommodation.
According to Piaget, children would proceed through which sequence of stages in their cognitive development?
|A)||sensorimotor, concrete operations, formal operations, preoperations|
|B)||sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations|
|C)||preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor|
|D)||sensorimotor, preoperations, formal operations, concrete operations|
Ten-year-old Maya would be expected to be in which stage of cognitive development?
Which of the following best describes development during the preoperations period of cognitive development?
|A)||The child can think abstractly, deal with hypothetical situations, and think about possibilities.|
|B)||The child gradually becomes able to organize activities in relation to the environment through the five senses and motor skills.|
|C)||The child can solve problems logically if they are focused on the here and now, but cannot think abstractly.|
|D)||The child develops a representational system and uses symbols to represent people, places, and events.|
The sensorimotor stage consists of ______ substages.
Which child is demonstrating a secondary circular reaction?
|A)||Andi who begins sucking when her bottle is placed in her mouth.|
|B)||Benjamin who, when given a bottle instead of his mother's breast, is able to adjust his style of sucking to the rubber nipple.|
|C)||Christi who pushes Cheerios over the edge of her high chair one at time and watches as they fall to the floor.|
|D)||All of the above are examples of secondary circular reactions.|
If 16-month-old Jaime's development is average, he would be expected to be in which of Piaget's stages?
|A)||primary circular reactions|
|B)||tertiary circular reactions|
Which best describes tertiary circular reaction?
|A)||An action and response both involve the infant's own body.|
|B)||An action gets one pleasing result, leading baby to perform similar actions to get similar results.|
|C)||An action gets a response from another person or object, leading the baby to repeat the original action.|
|D)||An action gets no response, so the behavior is extinguished.|
All but which of the following describe the sixth substage of the preoperational period?
|A)||It is a transition into the preoperational stage of early childhood.|
|B)||During this stage, representational ability blossoms.|
|C)||It is associated with ages 18 months to 2 years.|
|D)||Deferred imitation will not develop until this stage is completed.|
_______ experiments are conducted to examine infants' cognitive abilities.
|A)||Violations of expectations|
|C)||The three-mountain task|
Piaget believed that the "A, not-B" error was a sign of
|A)||incomplete understanding of the object concept|
|B)||an egocentric view of spatial relations|
|C)||both a and b|
|D)||neither a nor b|
Object permanence is to ______ as hypothetical-deductive reasoning is to ______.
|C)||early childhood/middle childhood|
Egocentric is to ______ as allocentric is to ______.
Regarding research on Piaget's stage of sensorimotor development, which of the following statements is false?
|A)||Research generally supports Piaget's timetable of spatial development.|
|B)||Some research suggests that a mechanism for recognizing causality exists much earlier than Piaget indicated.|
|C)||Violations-of-expectations research supports Piaget's claim that children develop an understanding of number during the sixth substage.|
|D)||Imitation abilities appear earlier than Piaget suggested.|
Current brain research suggests that object permanence seems to be seated in the ______.
Which of the following children is demonstrating the symbolic function?
|A)||Andrea who is using deferred imitation.|
|B)||Bill who is engaging in pretend play with his sister.|
|C)||Charisse who uses words to communicate with her caregiver.|
|D)||all of the above |
Preschool children will often view one situation as the basis for another, simply because they occur close together in time. When a child does this, she is using ______.
|A)||reasoning by transduction|
|B)||the dual representation hypothesis|
|C)||the symbolic function|
Four-year-old Tamara's failure to understand conservation is explained by which limitation of preoperational thinking?
|C)||difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy|
The ability to see the relationship between a whole and its parts, characteristic of the concrete operations period, is called ______.
Piaget used the ______ to assess the achievement of formal operations.
All but which of the following statements are consistent with Vygotsky's approach to explaining cognitive development?
|A)||Children are like apprentices, managing much of their own learning by observing adults, siblings, and peers.|
|B)||Language is a key to the collaborative learning in which children engage.|
|C)||Formal schooling is the main avenue of cognitive development during early childhood.|
|D)||Scaffolding and guided participation can be used to help children learn.|