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Theories of Personality, 5/e
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Humanistic/Existential Theories
Rogers: Person Centered Theory
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Multiple Choice Quiz


Rogers is most properly associated with
A)nondirective counseling.
B)client-centered therapy.
C)rational-emotive therapy.
D)behavior modification.

Before deciding on psychology, Rogers aspired to be a
D)both a and c.

Rogers described the formative tendency as the tendency for
A)humans to form intimate interpersonal relationships.
B)matter to evolve from simpler to more complex forms.
C)people to strive toward self-actualization.
D)people to return to an inorganic state.

Rogers believed that all behavior relates to one's
A)enhancement needs.
B)subceived self.
C)ideal self.
D)safety needs.
E)actualizing tendency.

Healthy people evaluate their experiences as good or bad according to which criterion?
A)the self-actualizing tendency
B)perceived self
C)reflected appraisal of others
D)the actualizing tendency
E)the self-concept

In Rogerian theory, the actualizing tendency
A)is synonymous with the formative tendency.
B)has the same or nearly the same meaning as self-actualization.
C)refers to the person's organismic experiences.
D)refers to the tendency to actualize the perceived self.

Inner tension arises, Rogers said, when a conflict exists between the
A)self-actualizing tendency and the organismic self.
B)emotion and cognition.
C)the values of others and one's own values.
D)the formative tendency and the actualization tendency.

A discrepancy between the self-concept and the ideal self results in
A)ego defense mechanisms.
C)the person of tomorrow.

Subception was defined by Rogers as
A)the underlying empathic linkage between client and therapist.
B)the process of perceiving stimuli without an awareness of the perception.
C)a discrepancy between the organismic self and the ideal self.
D)a discrepancy between the actualizing tendency and self-actualization.

Tyler has a low perception of himself. To increase his self-concept, his parents and teacher continually praise and compliment him. Rogers believed that such praise and compliments are most likely to
A)enhance Tyler's self-esteem.
B)reinforce Tyler's negative behavior.
C)be easily accepted into Tyler's self-concept.
D)be distorted by Tyler.

According to Rogers, two of our basic needs are
A)sex and safety.
B)self-actualization and self-enhancement.
C)power and submission.
D)maintenance and enhancement.

Rogers believed that, for psychologically healthy individuals,
A)the self and experience are congruent.
B)denial of organismic functioning is essential.
C)the ideal self replaces the real self.
D)an incongruence exists between their organismic self and their ideal self.

Which statement is consistent with Rogers's theory?
A)Self-regard is originally dependent on self-concept.
B)Once achieved, self-regard can exist independently of others' opinions and attitudes.
C)Self-regard is symptomatic of malignant egoism.
D)Self-regard stems from the negative appraisals received from others.

An unawareness of a discrepancy between self and experience leads to
A)psychological health.

According to Rogers, the two primary defensive strategies are
A)repression and denial.
B)repression and reaction formation.
C)denial and distortion.
D)subception and regression.

Rogers believed that a disorganized personality may at times behave consistently with organismic experience and at other times consistently with
A)the ideal self.
B)others' expectations.
C)the shattered self-concept.
D)the actualizing tendency.

Rogers hypothesized that empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence are
A)necessary and sufficient conditions for therapy.
B)necessary but not sufficient conditions for therapy.
C)sufficient but not necessary conditions for therapy.
D)neither necessary nor sufficient for therapy.

In Rogers's seven stages of therapeutic process, growth is irreversible when clients reach which stage?

Clients are better able to listen to themselves when the therapist possesses
A)sympathy for them.
B)empathy for them.
C)conditions of worth toward them.
D)a professional attitude toward them.

Rogers hypothesized that persons of tomorrow would
A)mistrust others.
B)be free of psychological conflict.
C)be open to their experience.
D)reach a high-level stage where continued change was unnecessary.

In the Chicago study, Rogers and his associates found that
A)clients who received client-centered therapy became fully functioning.
B)empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence were neither necessary nor sufficient.
C)clients who received client-centered therapy improved, but they did not reach an "average" level of psychological functioning.
D)clients who received cognitive behavior therapy showed no gain.

In testing Rogers's facilitative conditions, Cramer has found that
A)empathy alone is therapeutic.
B)counselor congruence alone is therapeutic.
C)unconditional positive regard alone is therapeutic.
D)advice-giving interferes with a positive therapeutic outcome.
E)all three facilitative conditions are necessary.

Vansteenwegen (1996) found that couples receiving client-centered therapy
A)showed initial improvement but reverted to pre-therapy status after one year post-treatment.
B)were very likely to divorce or break off their relationship.
C)showed increases in positive regard, empathy, and congruence.
D)developed strong positive self-regard but demonstrated negative regard for their partners.

Which statement is most consistent with Rogers's concept of humanity?
A)People have a natural tendency to move toward actualization.
B)People move inevitably toward actualization.
C)People move inevitably toward self-actualization.
D)People are free to become what they will.