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Microbiology, Fifth Edition
Microbiology, 5/e
Lansing M Prescott, Augustana College
Donald A Klein, Colorado State University
John P Harley, Eastern Kentucky University

Eucaryotic Cell Structure and Function


Choose the best answer


The diploid state of a microorganism refers to the times when cells contain _______ copy (ies) of each chromosome and occurs after mitotic cell division.

The mitochondria is the site of
A)protein synthesis
B)lipid synthesis
C)energy production

The cytoplasmic matrix is best described as
A)A dilute aqueous solution that fills most of the cell.
B)A solution of inorganic salts intended to balance osmotic pressure in the cell.
C)A semicrystalline mixture mostly of proteins and bound water molecules.
D)Material in transit between membrane bound organelles.

Which of the following statements about Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is not true?
A)ER can transport proteins and lipids to the plasma membrane or for secretion.
B)ER is the main site for cell membrane biosynthesis.
C)ER is contiguous with the nuclear membrane.
D)ER is the main site for synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins.

When Listeria monocytogenes invades a eucaryotic cell, it secretes the ActA protein that
A)polymerizes actin filaments, causing the bacterium to move through the cytoplasm.
B)depolymerizes microfilaments, allowing the bacterium to move more easily in the cytoplasm.
C)degrades the cytoskeleton, allowing the bacterium to travel through the plasma membrane to adjacent cells.
D)attaches to microtubules, allowing the bacterium to move along the fibers.

Colchicine treatment of cells to disrupt microtubules can result in
A)loss of cell shape
B)loss of directional movement.
C)loss of nutrient transport.
D)all of the above.

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism for a cell to degrade its own cytosolic proteins?
A)Autophagic vacuoles
B)Phagocytosis and secondary lysosome fusion.
C)26S Proteosome degradation.
D)All the above are correct mechanisms.

Lysosomes of the cell are where
A)lysozyme is synthesized.
B)secretory proteins are transported to the surface.
C)endocytosed material is degraded.
D)glycogen is stored as an energy source.

Mitochondria are similar to bacteria in several ways. Which of the following is NOT a similarity?
A)Both have peptidyl glycan in their cell wall.
B)Both have circular, double stranded DNA.
C)Both are about the same size.
D)Both have 70S ribosomes.

The F1 particles of mitochondria are
A)a type of ribosome that synthesizes mitochondrial proteins.
B)a structural component of the mitochondrial inner membrane.
C)an enzyme complex that synthesizes ATP during respiration.
D)a storage complex for calcium phosphate in the mitochondria.

Plastids are
A)protrusions of plasma membrane that bud off of plant cells.
B)cytoplasmic organelles that often contain photosynthetic pigments.
C)pieces of circular, double stranded DNA that can carry drug resistance.
D)areas of the nucleus where rRNA is transcribed.

The light reaction of photosynthesis is where
A)carbohydrates are formed from CO2 and water.
B)polysaccharides are formed in the pyrenoid.
C)proteins within the stroma are made to give off photons of light.
D)photons from light are trapped to generate ATP and O2.

The nucleus of the cell is where
A)energy for cell division is generated.
B)ribosomes translate mRNA into proteins.
C)chromatin is kept within a membrane delimited body.
D)endocytic vacuoles fuse with lysosomes.

The nuclear pores are passageways between the nuclear matrix and the cytoplasm which
A)allow DNA to reach the cytoplasm to be translated to RNA.
B)allow ribosomes to enter the nuclear matrix.
C)allow proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm to enter the nucleus.
D)structurally reinforce the nuclear membrane.

DNA is the primary molecule for information storage in
A)procaryotes only.
B)eucaryotes only.
C)both procaryotes and eucaryotes.

Cell walls, when they exist, usually contain peptidoglycan in
A)procaryotes only.
B)eucaryotes only.
C)both procaryotes and eucaryotes.

When flagella exist, their movement is powered by ATP in
A)procaryotes only.
B)eucaryotes only.
C)both procaryotes and eucaryotes.

Membrane bound organelles such as mitochondria and Golgi are found in
A)procaryotes only.
B)eucaryotes only.
C)both procaryotes and eucaryotes.

Ribosomes are required for synthesis of proteins in
A)procaryotes only.
B)eucaryotes only.
C)both procaryotes and eucaryotes.

Exoenzymes are contained in the periplasmic space in
A)procaryotes only.
B)eucaryotes only.
C)both procaryotes and eucaryotes.

All the cells chromosomes are contained in the cell nucleus for
A)procaryotes only.
B)eucaryotes only.
C)both procaryotes and eucaryotes.