A symbolic narrative in which the surface details imply a secondary
meaning. Allegory often takes the form of a story in which the characters represent
moral qualities. The most famous example in English is John Bunyan's Pilgrim's
Progress, in which the name of the central character, Pilgrim, epitomizes
the book's allegorical nature. Kay Boyle's story "Astronomer's
Wife" and Christina Rossetti's poem "Up-Hill" both contain
The repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the beginning
of words. Example: "Fetched fresh, as I suppose, off some sweet wood."
Hopkins, "In the Valley of the Elwy."
Two unaccented syllables followed by an accented one, as in
com-pre-HEND or in-ter-VENE. An anapestic meter rises to the accented
beat as in Byron's lines from "The Destruction of Sennacherib":
"And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea, / When the blue
wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee."
A character or force against which another character struggles.
Creon is Antigone's antagonist in Sophocles' play Antigone;
Teiresias is the antagonist of Oedipus in Sophocles' Oedipus the King.
The repetition of similar vowel sounds in a sentence or a
line of poetry or prose, as in "I rose and told him of my woe." Whitman's
"When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer" contains assonantal "I's"
in the following lines: "How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick,
/ Till rising and gliding out I wander'd off by myself."
A love lyric in which the speaker complains about the arrival
of the dawn, when he must part from his lover. John Donne's "The Sun
Rising" exemplifies this poetic genre.
A narrative poem written in four-line stanzas,
characterized by swift action and narrated in a direct style. The Anonymous
medieval ballad, "Barbara Allan," exemplifies the genre.
A line of poetry or prose in unrhymed iambic pentameter.
Shakespeare's sonnets, Milton's
epic poem Paradise Lost, and Robert Frost's meditative poems such
as "Birches" include many lines of blank verse. Here are the opening
blank verse lines of "Birches": When I see birches bend to left and
right / Across the lines of straighter darker trees, / I like to think some
boy's been swinging them.
A strong pause within a line of verse. The following stanza
from Hardy's "The Man He Killed" contains caesuras in the middle
He thought he'd 'list, perhaps,
Off-hand-like--just as I--
Was out of work-had sold his traps--
No other reason why.
An imaginary person that inhabits a literary work. Literary
characters may be major or minor, static (unchanging) or dynamic (capable of
change). In Shakespeare's Othello, Desdemona is a major character,
but one who is static, like the minor character Bianca. Othello is a major character
who is dynamic, exhibiting an ability to change.
The means by which writers present and reveal character.
Although techniques of characterization are complex, writers typically reveal
characters through their speech, dress, manner, and actions. Readers come to
understand the character Miss Emily in Faulkner's story "A Rose for
Emily" through what she says, how she lives, and what she does.
The turning point of the action in the plot of a play or story.
The climax represents the point of greatest tension in the work. The climax
of John Updike's "A&P," for example, occurs when Sammy quits
his job as a cashier.
A type of form or structure in poetry characterized by regularity
and consistency in such elements as rhyme, line length, and metrical pattern.
Frost's "Stopping By Woods on a Snowy
Evening" provides one of many examples. A single stanza illustrates
some of the features of closed form:
Whose woods these are I think I know.
His house is in the village though.
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
An intensification of the conflict in a story
or play. Complication builds up, accumulates, and develops the primary or central
conflict in a literary work. Frank O'Connor's story "Guests of
the Nation" provides a striking example, as does Ralph Ellison's "Battle
A struggle between opposing forces in a story or play, usually
resolved by the end of the work. The conflict may occur within a character as
well as between characters. Lady Gregory's one-act play The Rising of
the Moon exemplifies both types of conflict as the Policeman wrestles with
his conscience in an inner conflict and confronts an antagonist in the person
of the ballad singer.
The associations called up by a word that goes beyond its
dictionary meaning. Poets, especially, tend to use words rich in connotation.
Dylan Thomas's "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" includes
intensely connotative language, as in these lines: "Good men, the last
wave by, crying how bright / Their frail deeds might have danced in a green
bay, / Rage, rage against the dying of the light."
A customary feature of a literary work, such as the use of
a chorus in Greek tragedy, the inclusion of an explicit moral in
a fable, or the use of a particular rhyme scheme in a villanelle.
Literary conventions are defining features of particular literary
genres, such as novel, short story, ballad, sonnet, and play.
A pair of rhymed lines that may or may not constitute a separate
stanza in a poem. Shakespeare's sonnets end in rhymed couplets,
as in "For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings / That then I scorn
to change my state with kings."
A stressed syllable followed by two unstressed ones, as in FLUT-ter-ing
or BLUE-ber-ry. The following playful lines illustrate double dactyls,
two dactyls per line:
The dictionary meaning of a word. Writers typically play
off a word's denotative meaning against its connotations, or suggested
and implied associational implications. In the following lines from Peter Meinke's
"Advice to My Son" the references to flowers and fruit, bread and
wine denote specific things, but also suggest something beyond the literal,
dictionary meanings of the words:
To be specific, between the peony and rose
Plant squash and spinach, turnips and tomatoes;
Beauty is nectar and nectar, in a desert, saves--
and always serve bread with your wine.
always serve wine.
The resolution of the plot of a literary work.
The denouement of Hamlet takes place after the catastrophe,
with the stage littered with corpses. During the denouement Fortinbras makes
an entrance and a speech, and Horatio speaks his sweet lines in praise of Hamlet.
The conversation of characters in a literary work. In fiction,
dialogue is typically enclosed within quotation marks. In plays, characters'
speech is preceded by their names.
The selection of words in a literary work. A work's diction
forms one of its centrally important literary elements, as writers use words
to convey action, reveal character, imply attitudes, identify themes, and suggest
values. We can speak of the diction particular to a character, as in Iago's
and Desdemona's very different ways of speaking in Othello. We can
also refer to a poet's diction as represented over the body of his or her
work, as in Donne's or Hughes's diction.
A lyric poem that laments the dead. Robert Hayden's
"Those Winter Sundays" is elegiac in tone. A more explicitly identified
elegy is W.H. Auden's "In Memory of William Butler Yeats" and
his "Funeral Blues."
The omission of an unstressed vowel or syllable to preserve
the meter of a line of poetry. Alexander uses elision in "Sound
and Sense": "Flies o'er th' unbending corn...."
A run-on line of poetry in which logical and grammatical
sense carries over from one line into the next. An enjambed line differs from
an end-stopped line in which the grammatical and logical sense is completed
within the line. In the opening lines of Robert Browning's "My Last
Duchess," for example, the first line is end-stopped and the second enjambed:
That's my last Duchess painted on the wall,
Looking as if she were alive. I call
That piece a wonder, now....
A long narrative poem that records the adventures
of a hero. Epics typically chronicle the origins of a civilization and embody
its central values. Examples from western literature include Homer's Iliad
and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Milton's Paradise
A brief witty poem, often satirical. Alexander Pope's "Epigram
Engraved on the Collar of a Dog" exemplifies the genre:
I am his Highness' dog at Kew;
Pray tell me, sir, whose dog are you?
The first stage of a fictional or dramatic plot, in which
necessary background information is provided. Ibsen's A Doll's
House, for instance, begins with a conversation between the two central
characters, a dialogue that fills the audience in on events that occurred before
the action of the play begins, but which are important in the development of
In the plot of a story or play, the action following
the climax of the work that moves it towards its denouement or resolution. The
falling action of Othello begins after Othello realizes that Iago is
responsible for plotting against him by spurring him on to murder his wife,
Poetic meters such as trochaic and dactylic
that move or fall from a stressed to an unstressed syllable. The nonsense line,
"Higgledy, piggledy," is dactylic, with the accent on the first syllable
and the two syllables following falling off from that accent in each word. Trochaic
meter is represented by this line: "Hip-hop, be-bop, treetop--freedom."
An imagined story, whether in prose, poetry, or drama. Ibsen's
Nora is fictional, a "make-believe" character in a play, as are Hamlet
and Othello. Characters like Robert Browning's Duke and Duchess from his
poem "My Last Duchess" are fictional as well, though they may be based
on actual historical individuals. And, of course, characters in stories and
novels are fictional, though they, too, may be based, in some way, on real people.
The important thing to remember is that writers embellish and embroider and
alter actual life when they use real life as the basis for their work. They
fictionalize facts, and deviate from real-life situations as they "make
A form of language use in which writers and speakers
convey something other than the literal meaning of their words. Examples include
hyperbole or exaggeration, litotes or understatement, simile and metaphor, which
employ comparison, and synecdoche and metonymy, in which a part of a thing stands
for the whole.
An interruption of a work's chronology to describe or
present an incident that occurred prior to the main time frame of a work's
action. Writers use flashbacks to complicate the sense of chronology in the
plot of their works and to convey the richness of the experience of human time.
Faulkner's story "A Rose for Emily" includes flashbacks.
A character who contrasts and parallels the main character in a
play or story. Laertes, in Hamlet, is a foil for the main character;
in Othello, Emilia and Bianca are foils for Desdemona.
A metrical unit composed of stressed
and unstressed syllables. For example, an iamb or iambic foot is represented
by ˘', that is, an unaccented syllable
followed by an accented one. Frost's line "Whose woods these are I
think I know" contains four iambs, and is thus an iambic foot.
Hints of what is to come in the action of a play or a
story. Ibsen's A Doll's House includes foreshadowing as does
Synge's Riders to the Sea. So, too, do Poe's "Cask of
Amontillado" and Chopin's "Story of an Hour."
Poetry without a regular pattern of meter or
rhyme. The verse is "free" in not being bound by earlier poetic conventions
requiring poems to adhere to an explicit and identifiable meter and rhyme scheme
in a form such as the sonnet or ballad. Modern and contemporary poets of the
twentieth and twenty-first centuries often employ free verse. Williams's
"This Is Just to Say" is one of many examples.
A figure of speech involving exaggeration. John Donne uses
hyperbole in his poem: "Song: Go and Catch a Falling Star."
An unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one, as in to-DAY.
A concrete representation of a sense impression, a feeling, or
an idea. Imagery refers to the pattern of related details in a work. In some
works one image predominates either by recurring throughout the work or by appearing
at a critical point in the plot. Often writers use multiple images throughout
a work to suggest states of feeling and to convey implications of thought and
action. Some modern poets, such as Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams, write
poems that lack discursive explanation entirely and include only images. Among
the most famous examples is Pound's poem "In a Station of the Metro":
The apparition of these faces in the crowd;
Petals on a wet, black bough.
The pattern of related comparative aspects of language, particularly
of images, in a literary work. Imagery of light and darkness pervade James Joyce's
stories "Araby," "The Boarding House," and "The Dead."
So, too, does religious imagery.
A contrast or discrepancy between what is said and what is meant
or between what happens and what is expected to happen in life and in literature.
In verbal irony, characters say the opposite of what they mean. In irony of
circumstance or situation, the opposite of what is expected occurs. In dramatic
irony, a character speaks in ignorance of a situation or event known to the
audience or to the other characters. Flannery O'Connor's short stories
employ all these forms of irony, as does Poe's "Cask of Amontillado."
A form of language in which writers and speakers mean
exactly what their words denote. See Figurative language, Denotation,
A type of poem characterized by brevity, compression, and
the expression of feeling. Most of the poems in this book are lyrics. The anonymous
"Western Wind" epitomizes the genre:
Western wind, when will thou blow,
The small rain down can rain?
Christ, if my love were in my arms
And I in my bed again!
A comparison between essentially unlike things without an explicitly
comparative word such as like or as. An example is "My love
is a red, red rose,"
From Burns's "A Red, Red Rose." Langston Hughes's "Dream
Deferred" is built entirely of metaphors. Metaphor is one of the most important
of literary uses of language. Shakespeare employs a wide range of metaphor in
his sonnets and his plays, often in such density and profusion that readers
are kept busy analyzing and interpreting and unraveling them. Compare Simile.
The measured pattern of rhythmic accents in poems. See Foot
A figure of speech in which a closely related term is substituted
for an object or idea. An example: "We have always remained loyal to the
crown." See Synecdoche.
A poem that tells a story. See Ballad.
The voice and implied speaker of a fictional work, to be distinguished
from the actual living author. For example, the narrator of Joyce's "Araby"
is not James Joyce himself, but a literary fictional character created expressly
to tell the story. Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily" contains a communal
narrator, identified only as "we." See Point of view.
An eight-line unit, which may constitute a stanza;
or a section of a poem, as in the octave of a sonnet.
A long, stately poem in stanzas of varied length, meter,
and form. Usually a serious poem on an exalted subject, such as
Horace's "Eheu fugaces," but sometimes a more lighthearted work,
such as Neruda's "Ode to My Socks."
The use of words to imitate the sounds they describe. Words
such as buzz and crack are onomatopoetic. The following line from
Pope's "Sound and Sense" onomatopoetically imitates in sound
what it describes:
When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw,
The line too labors, and the words move slow.
Most often, however, onomatopoeia refers to words and groups of words, such
as Tennyson's description of the "murmur of innumerable bees,"
which attempts to capture the sound of a swarm of bees buzzing.
A type of structure or form in poetry characterized by freedom
from regularity and consistency in such elements as rhyme, line length, metrical pattern,
and overall poetic structure. E.E. Cummings's
"[Buffalo Bill's]" is one example. See also Free verse.
A humorous, mocking imitation of a literary work, sometimes sarcastic,
but often playful and even respectful in its playful imitation. Examples include
Bob McKenty's parody of Frost's "Dust of Snow" and Kenneth
Koch's parody of Williams's "This is Just to Say."
The endowment of inanimate objects or abstract concepts
with animate or living qualities. An example: "The yellow leaves flaunted
their color gaily in the breeze." Wordsworth's "I wandered lonely
as a cloud" includes personification.
The unified structure of incidents in a literary work. See Conflict,
Climax, Denouement, andFlashback.
Point of view
The angle of vision from which a story is narrated. See
Narrator. A work's point of view can be: first person,
in which the narrator is a character or an observer, respectively; objective,
in which the narrator knows or appears to know no more than the reader; omniscient,
in which the narrator knows everything about the characters; and limited omniscient,
which allows the narrator to know some things about the characters but not everything.
The main character of a literary work--Hamlet
and Othello in the plays named after them, Gregor Samsa in Kafka's Metamorphosis,
Paul in Lawrence's "Rocking-Horse Winner."
A metrical foot with two unstressed syllables ("of the").
A four-line stanza in a poem, the first four lines
and the second four lines in a Petrachan sonnet. A Shakespearean sonnet contains
three quatrains followed by a couplet.
The point at which a character understands his or her situation
as it really is. Sophocles' Oedipus comes to this point near the end of
Oedipus the King; Othello comes to a similar understanding of his situation
in Act V of Othello.
The sorting out or unraveling of a plot at the end of a play,
novel, or story. See Plot.
The point at which the action of the plot turns in an unexpected
direction for the protagonist. Oedipus's and Othello's
recognitions are also reversals. They learn what they did not expect to learn.
See Recognition and also Irony.
The matching of final vowel or consonant sounds in two or more
words. The following stanza of "Richard Cory" employs alternate rhyme,
with the third line rhyming with the first and the fourth with the second:
Whenever Richard Cory went down town,
We people on the pavement looked at him;
He was a gentleman from sole to crown
Clean favored and imperially slim.
The recurrence of accent or stress in lines of verse. In the
following lines from "Same in Blues" by Langston Hughes, the accented
words and syllables are underlined:
I said to my baby,
Baby take it slow....
Lulu said to Leonard
I want a diamond ring
A set of conflicts and crises that constitute the part
of a play's or story's plot leading up to the climax.
See Climax, Denouement, and Plot.
Poetic meters such as iambic
and anapestic that move or ascend from an unstressed
to a stressed syllable. See Anapest, Iamb, and Falling meter.
A literary work that criticizes human misconduct and ridicules
vices, stupidities, and follies. Swift's Gulliver's Travels
is a famous example. Chekhov's Marriage Proposal and O'Connor's
"Everything That Rises Must Converge," have strong satirical elements.
A six-line unit of verse constituting a stanza or
section of a poem; the last six lines of an Italian sonnet. Examples:
Petrarch's "If it is not love, then what is it that I feel,"
and Frost's "Design."
A poem of thirty-nine lines and written in iambic pentameter.
Its six-line stanza
repeat in an intricate and prescribed order the final word in each of the first
six lines. After the sixth stanza, there is a three-line envoi,
which uses the six repeating words, two per line.
The time and place of a literary work that establish its context.
The stories of Sandra Cisneros are set in the American southwest in the mid
to late 20th century, those of James Joyce in Dublin, Ireland in the early 20th
A figure of speech involving a comparison between unlike things
using like, as, or as though. An example: "My love
is like a red, red rose."
A fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter.
The Shakespearean or English sonnet is arranged as three quatrains and a final
couplet, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg. The
Petrarchan or Italian sonnet divides into two parts: an eight-line octave and
a six-line sestet, rhyming abba abba cde cde or abba abba cd cd cd.
A metricalfoot represented
by two stressed syllables, such as KNICK-KNACK.
A division or unit of a poem that is repeated in the same form--either
with similar or identical patterns or rhyme and meter, or with
variations from one stanza to another. The stanzas of Gertrude Schnackenberg's
"Signs" are regular; those of Rita Dove's "Canary"
The way an author chooses words, arranges them in sentences or
in lines of dialogue or verse, and develops ideas and actions with description,
imagery, and other literary techniques. See Connotation, Denotation,
Diction, Figurative language, Image, Imagery,
Irony, Metaphor, Narrator, Point of view,
Syntax, and Tone.
What a story or play is about; to be distinguished from plot
and theme. Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily"
is about the decline of a particular way of life endemic to the American south
before the civil war. Its plot concerns how Faulkner describes and organizes
the actions of the story's characters. Its theme is the overall meaning
A subsidiary or subordinate or parallel plot in
a play or story that coexists with the main plot. The story of Rosencrantz and
Guildenstern forms a subplot with the overall plot of Hamlet.
An object or action in a literary work that means more than itself,
that stands for something beyond itself. The glass unicorn in The Glass Menagerie,
the rocking horse in "The Rocking-Horse Winner," the road in Frost's
"The Road Not Taken"--all are symbols in this sense.
A figure of speech in which a part is substituted for the
whole. An example: "Lend me a hand." See Metonymy.
The grammatical order of words in a sentence or line of verse
or dialogue. The organization of words and phrases and clauses in sentences
of prose, verse, and dialogue. In the following example, normal syntax (subject,
verb, object order) is inverted:
"Whose woods these are I think I know."
A three-line stanza, as the stanzas in Frost's
"Acquainted With the Night" and Shelley's "Ode to the West
Wind." The three-line stanzas or sections that together constitute the
sestet of a Petrarchan or Italian sonnet.
The idea of a literary work abstracted from its details of language,
character, and action, and cast in the form of a generalization. See discussion
of Dickinson's "Crumbling is not an instant's Act."
The implied attitude of a writer toward the subject and characters
of a work, as, for example, Flannery O'Connor's ironic tone in her
"Good Country People." See Irony.
An accented syllable followed by an unaccented one, as in FOOT-ball.
A figure of speech in which a writer or speaker says
less than what he or she means; the opposite of exaggeration. The last line
of Frost's "Birches" illustrates this literary device: "One
could do worse than be a swinger of birches."
A nineteen-line lyric poem that relies heavily on repetition.
The first and third lines alternate throughout the poem, which is structured
in six stanzas --five tercets and a concluding
quatrain. Examples include Bishop's "One Art," Roethke's
"The Waking," and Thomas's "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good