The term _________________ refers to the fundamental alterations in the patterns of culture, structure, and social behavior over time.
The development of computers and the increased use of the Internet are examples of what source of social change?
|A)||clashes over resources and values|
|C)||the mass media|
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding evolutionary perspectives on social change?
|A)||Lenski argues that evolution depends largely on changes in a society's level of technology and mode of economic production.|
|B)||Social Darwinists like Spencer see evolution as inevitably leading to the downfall of society.|
|C)||Contemporary approaches take a unilinear view of evolution and assume all change equals progress.|
|D)||Parsons suggested that societies tend to become simpler over time.|
|A)||try to predict the course of a civilization or society.|
|B)||focus on analyzing a single society at a time.|
|C)||believe that cultures pass through stages of growth quite different from the ones individuals pass through.|
|D)||postulate that each culture possesses a life span of approximately 200 years.|
|A)||refers to new forms of social disintegration.|
|B)||is the adjustment gap between material and nonmaterial culture.|
|C)||occurs when the dominant group forces changes upon the subordinate group, which lags behind.|
|D)||is society's way of avoiding the social problems that ensue from social change.|
Marx saw conflict between ______________ as the primary source of social change.
Which of the following is likely to occur as a result of the computer revolution in the United States?
|A)||a restriction in the amount of information available to the general public|
|B)||a plateauing of the amount of automation in the workplace|
|C)||a centralized accumulation of power in the hands of those who have access to computers|
|D)||an increased involvement in society by people with disabilities|
_________________ is the process by which a society moves from traditional to industrial social and economic arrangements.
In developing nations, which of the following influence(s) social change towards the liberal, Western democratic style of society?
|A)||literacy, education, and communication|
|B)||a centrally dominated social order|
|C)||extreme social inequalities|
|D)||homogenous social groups and organizations|
Which of the following is an accurate statement about rumors?
|A)||Rumors are effective ways to disseminate reliable information.|
|B)||Rumors are easy to verify.|
|C)||Rumors are transmitted from person to person in a relatively rapid fashion.|
|D)||Rumors typically arise when people trust official sources of information.|
How do fashions differ from fads?
|A)||Fashions are norms; fads are not.|
|B)||Fashions are long-lived; fads are short-lived.|
|C)||Fashions enjoy widespread acceptance within society; fads enjoy acceptance only among a segment of the population.|
|D)||Fashions include crazes; fads do not.|
|A)||involves contained anxiety.|
|B)||is usually associated with some mysterious force.|
|C)||never involves physical symptoms.|
|D)||none of the above|
Crowds have three characteristics in common. Which of the following is NOT one of those characteristics?
The value-added model of collective behavior:
|A)||presents three preconditions for collective behavior.|
|B)||states that each determinant expands the range of potential final outcomes.|
|C)||is of little use in understanding the complexity of collective behavior.|
|D)||none of the above|
According to Smelser's model, which of the following determinants of collective behavior occurs first?
|A)||growth of a generalized belief|
According to contagion theory, the "mob mind" develops through:
|A)||imitation, suggestibility, and circular reaction.|
|B)||precipitating factors, structural strain, and structural conduciveness.|
|C)||norms of the status quo, emergent norms, and new norms.|
|D)||fashions, fads, and crazes.|
Central to the concept of social movement is the idea that:
|A)||social movements appear only in times of controlled, slow social change.|
|B)||social movements occur inside the institutional framework of everyday life.|
|C)||people intervene in the process of social change.|
|D)||people do not readily undertake joint activity.|
Among the approaches that seek to explain the causes of social movements, which one states that revolutions are most likely to take place when a prolonged period of social and economic betterment is followed by a period of sharp reversal?
|A)||the resource mobilization approach|
|B)||the deprivation approach|
|C)||the capitalist collapse approach|
|D)||none of the above|
|A)||involve the gradual evolution of existing state and class structures into new social arrangements.|
|B)||are most likely to occur when political power is decentralized.|
|C)||appear to follow no "natural history."|
|D)||often begin with intellectuals withdrawing their support of the existing regime.|
Which of the following describes a central change in contemporary life that has been identified by futurists?
|A)||The United States is being restructured from an agrarian to an industrial society.|
|B)||Modern societies are increasingly shifting from a national to a global economy.|
|C)||High tech industries are becoming energy- and materials-intensive.|
|D)||all of the above|