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Dominick:Dynamics of Mass Communication
Dynamics of Mass Communication: Media in the Digital Age, 7/e
Joseph R. Dominick


acculturation  In a media context, the tendency of reporters or other media professionals to adopt the ideas and attitudes of the groups they cover or with which they have a great deal of contact.
advertising agency  A company that handles both the creative and the business side of an advertising campaign for its clients.
agencies of socialization  The various people or organizations that contribute to the socialization of an individual.
agency  Organization that handles basic needs of advertisers.
agenda building  The ways the media decide what is newsworthy.
agenda-setting effect  The influence of the mass media created by emphasizing certain topics, thus causing people to perceive those same issues as important.
alphabet  A group of letters used to symbolize each of the sounds that make up a word.
AM  Amplitude modulation of radio waves.
Arbitron  The professional research organization that measures radio audiences.
Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC)  An organization formed by advertisers and publishers in 1914 to establish ground rules for counting circulation data.
authoritarian theory  The prevailing belief that a ruling elite should guide the intellectually inferior masses.
banner ads  Type of advertising found on web pages.
best-seller list  Ranking of best-selling books based on retail sales.
beware surveillance  A media function that occurs when the media inform the public of short-term, long-term, or chronic threats.
Billboard  The sound-recording industry trade publication that tabulates record popularity.
block booking  A policy of major film studios that required theater owners to show several of a studio's low-quality films before they could receive the same studio's top-quality films.
broadband  Increased bandwidth for Internet connections, which speeds up downloads.
browsers  Type of software that lets individuals search for content on the World Wide Web.
business-to-business advertising  Advertising directed not at the general public but at other businesses.
campaign  In advertising, a large number of ads that stress the same theme and appear over a specified length of time.
carriage fee  Fee paid by cable systems to carry a cable network.
categorical imperative  Ethical principle that states people should behave as they would wish all others to behave.
catharsis  A release of pent-up emotion or energy.
catharsis theory  A theory that suggests viewing aggression will purge the viewer's aggressive feelings.
cease-and-desist order  A Federal Trade Commission order notifying an advertiser that a certain practice violates the law; failure to comply with a cease-and-desist order can result in fines being levied against the advertiser.
channel  The pathway by which a message travels from sender to receiver.
circulation  The total number of copies of a publication delivered to newsstands, vending machines, and subscribers.
clock hour  Radio format that specifies every element of the program.
commercial television  Television programs broadcast by local stations whose income is derived from selling time on their facilities to advertisers.
Communications Act of 1934  Act of Congress creating the Federal Communications Commission.
communist theory  Theory of the press that holds the media should promote the goals of the ruling political party.
comprehensive layout  The finished model of a print ad.
computer-assisted reporting (CAR)  Skills involved in using the Internet to aid reporting.
concept testing  A type of feedback in which a one- or two-paragraph description for a new series is presented to a sample of viewers for their reactions.
consent order  Federal Trade Commission order in which the advertiser agrees to halt a certain advertising practice without admitting any violation of the law.
consequence  The importance or weightiness of a news story.
consumer advertising  Advertising directed at the general public.
controlled circulation  A type of circulation in which publications are sent free or distributed to a select readership, such as airline passengers or motel guests.
convergence  The blending of communication technologies.
conversational currency  Topic material presented by the media that provides a common ground for social conversations.
copy  Headlines and message in an ad.
creative boutique  Advertising organization that specializes in the creative side of advertising.
credibility  The trust that the audience holds for media that perform surveillance functions.
critical/cultural approach  Analytical technique that examines power relationships in society and focuses on meanings people find in texts.
crystallization  The sharpening and elaboration of a vaguely held attitude or predisposition.
cultivation analysis  An area of research that examines whether television and other media encourage perceptions of reality that are more consistent with media portrayals than with actuality.
culture  Common values, behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs that bind a society together.
cycle  In all-news radio, the amount of time that elapses before the program order is repeated.
decoding  The activity in the communication process by which physical messages are translated into a form that has eventual meaning for the receiver.
defamation  The act of harming the reputation of another by publishing false information.
demo  A demonstration tape used to sell a musical performer or group.
developmental journalism  Type of journalism, practiced by many Third World countries, that stresses national goals and economic development.
developmental theory  The assumption that government uses media to further national, economic, and social goals.
digital technology  A system that encodes information-sound, text, data, video-into a series of on and off pulses that are usually denoted as zeros and ones.
digital television (DTV)  Television signals consisting of binary signals that allow for improved picture quality.
digital videodisk (DVD)  A disk that stores audio, movies, video, and graphics in digital format that is compatible with DVD players and home computers.
direct action  An ad that contains a direct response item (such as a toll-free number) that allows advertisers to see results quickly.
direct broadcast satellite (DBS)  A system in which a home TV set receives a signal directly from an orbiting satellite.
disintermediation  The process of delivering a product or service directly to the consumer.
distribution system  The actual cables that deliver the signals to subscribers.
distributors  Sector of media industry that takes products from manufacturers and delivers them to retailers.
double feature  Practice started by theaters in the 1930s of showing two feature films on the same bill.
dummy  Rough version of a magazine that's used for planning how final version will look.
dysfunction  Consequence that is undesirable from the point of view of the welfare of society.
e-book  Digital version of a book, which can be read by using a computer or a special reader.
editorial policies  Guidelines the print media follow to persuade the public on certain issues or to achieve specific goals.
electronic news gathering (ENG)  Producing and airing field reports using small, lightweight portable TV equipment.
e-mail  Electronic messages sent from computer to computer.
encoding  The activity in the communication process by which thoughts and ideas from the source are translated into a form that may be perceived by the senses.
Equal Opportunities rule  Part of the Communications Act of 1934; Section 315 allows bona fide candidates for public office to gain access to a broadcast medium during political campaigns.
evaluation  Research done to measure the effectiveness of an advertising or a public relations campaign.
experiment  A research technique that stresses controlled conditions and manipulates variables.
Fairness Doctrine  Now defunct FCC doctrine that required broadcast stations to provide various points of view on a controversial issue.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)  A regulatory agency, composed of five individuals appointed by the president, whose responsibilities include broadcast and wire regulation.
feedback  The responses of the receiver that shape and alter subsequent messages from the source.
field experiment  An experiment that is conducted in a natural setting as opposed to a laboratory.
First Amendment  The first amendment of the Bill of Rights, stating that Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.
FM  Frequency modulation of radio waves.
focus group  A group of 10 to 15 people led by a moderator that discusses predetermined topics.
format  Consistent programming designed to appeal to a certain segment of the audience.
formative research  Advertising research done before developing a campaign.
format wheel  Visual aid that helps radio programmers plan what events happen during a given time period.
framing  The general way a news medium treats a topic.
franchise  An exclusive right to operate a business in a given territory.
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)  Law stating that every federal executive-branch agency must publish instructions on what methods a member of the public should follow to get information.
free-link exchange  Web advertising technique in which one company exchanges free ad space with another.
free marketplace of ideas  Press philosophy that endorses the free flow of information.
full-service agency  An ad agency that handles all phases of advertising for its clients.
functional approach  A methodology that holds something is best understood by examining how it is used.
gag rules  Judicial orders that restrict trial participants from giving information to the media or that restrain media coverage of events that occur in court.
gatekeepers  Individuals who decide whether a given message will be distributed by a mass medium.
golden mean  Ethical principle that states moderation is the key to virtue.
gramophone  A "talking machine" patented in 1887 by Emile Berliner that utilized a disk instead of a cylinder.
graphophone  A recording device similar to the phonograph, but utilizing a wax cylinder rather than tinfoil.
hard news  Timely stories with significance for many people.
head end  The antenna and related equipment of the cable system that receives and processes distant television signals so that they can be sent to subscribers' homes.
heavy metal  Counterculture musical trend of the 1960s-1970s, characterized by a vaguely threatening style and heavy use of amplification and electronic equipment.
hegemony  Dominance of one entity over another.
Hicklin rule  A long-standing obscenity standard based upon whether a book or other item contains isolated passages that might deprave or corrupt the mind of the most susceptible person.
house drop  The section of the cable that connects the feeder cable to the subscriber's TV set.
human interest  News value that emphasizes the emotional, bizarre, offbeat, or uplifting nature of a news story.
hypertext  Digital navigational tool that links one electronic document to another.
IBOC (in-band, on-channel)  Digital radio broadcasting system that is also compatible with current analog radio.
ideology  Particular set of beliefs or ideas.
independents  Radio or TV stations unaffiliated with any network.
indirect action ad  Advertisement that works over the long run to build a company's image.
information gathering  Phase of a public relations campaign where pertinent data are collected.
injunction  A court order that requires an individual to do something or to stop doing something.
instrumental surveillance  A media function that occurs when the media transmit information that is useful and helpful in everyday life.
Internet addiction  Condition in which a person spends too much time on the Internet, cannot control his or her Internet use, and neglects social responsibilities to spend time online.
interpersonal communication  A method of communication in which one person (or group) interacts with another person (or group) without the aid of a mechanical device.
investigative reports  News reporting that requires extraordinary efforts to gather information about matters of public importance.
jazz  A form of popular music that emerged during the Roaring Twenties and was noted for its spontaneity and disdain of convention.
jazz journalism  Journalism of the Roaring Twenties that was characterized by a lively style and a richly illustrated tabloid format.
joint-operating agreement (JOA)  An agreement, intended to preserve editorial competition, in which two newspapers merge their business and printing operations but maintain separate newsrooms.
joint venture  Method of movie financing in which several companies pool resources to finance films.
Kinetoscope  The first practical motion picture camera and viewing device, developed by William Dickson in 1889.
libel  Written defamation that tends to injure a person's reputation or good name or that diminishes the esteem, respect, or goodwill due a person.
libel per quod  Written material that becomes libelous under certain circumstances.
libel per se  Falsely written accusations (such as labeling a person a "thief" or a "swindler") that automatically constitute libel.
libertarian theory  The assumption that all human beings are rational decision makers and that governments exist to serve the individual.
limited partnership  Method of movie financing in which a number of investors put up a specified amount of money for a film.
linkage  The ability of the mass media to join different elements of society that are not directly connected by interpersonal channels.
machine-assisted interpersonal communication  A method of communication involving one or more persons and a mechanical device (or devices) with one or more receivers.
macroanalysis  A sociological perspective that considers the functions performed by a system (e.g., mass media) for the entire society.
magazine  Printed publication that contains an assortment of materials that appears on a regular basis.
mainstreaming  In cultivation analysis, the tendency of differences to disappear among heavy-TV-viewing people, apparently because of cultural and social factors.
management by objectives (MBO)  Management technique that sets observable, measurable goals for an organization to achieve.
marketing  Developing, pricing, distributing, and promoting an idea, a good, or a service.
mass communication  The process by which a complex organization, with the aid of one or more machines, produces and transmits public messages that are directed at large, heterogeneous, and scattered audiences.
mass media  The channels and the institutions of mass communication.
meaning  The interpretation an audience makes of text.
media buying service  An organization that specializes in buying media time to resell to advertisers.
Mediamark Research Inc. (MRI)  Company that measures magazine readership.
media vehicle  A single component of a mass medium, for example, a newspaper or TV network.
message  The actual physical product in the communication process that the source encodes.
message research  Pretesting messages in an ad campaign.
microanalysis  A sociological perspective that considers the functions performed by a system (e.g., mass media) for the individual.
modem  Device that allows computers to communicate via phone lines.
Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC)  An organization formed by the nine leading film and film equipment manufacturers in 1908 for the purpose of controlling the motion picture industry.
MP3  Digital method of encoding sound files on the Internet.
MPAA rating system  The G, PG, PG-13, R, NC-17 rating system for movies administered by the Motion Picture Association of America.
muckrakers  Term coined by Theodore Roosevelt to describe the reform movement undertaken by leading magazines in the 1890s; corrupt practices of business and government were exposed to the general public by crusading members of the press.
national advertiser  Advertiser who sells a product all across the country.
National Public Radio (NPR)  A noncommercial U.S. radio network.
network  An organization composed of interconnecting broadcasting stations that cuts costs by airing the same programs.
newsgroups  Section of the Internet devoted to message boards that are organized according to topic.
newshole  The amount of space available each day in a newspaper for news.
nickelodeon  A popular name for the many penny arcades and amusement centers that emerged around the beginning of the 20th century and specialized in recordings and film.
noise  In communication, anything that interferes with the delivery of a message.
noncommercial television  Television programs broadcast by those stations whose income is derived from sources other than the sale of advertising time.
nonduplication rule  FCC rule passed in 1965, stating that an AM-FM combination may not duplicate its AM content on its FM channel for more than 50 percent of the time.
observational learning  A form of education in which individuals learn by observing the actions of others.
ombudsperson  An individual in a media organization assigned to handle complaints from audience members.
one-stops  Individuals who sell records to retail stores and jukebox operators who are not in a position to buy directly from the record company.
operating policies  Guidelines that cover the everyday problems and situations that crop up during the operation of a media organization.
paid circulation  A type of circulation in which the reader must purchase a magazine through a subscription or at a newsstand.
panel study  A research method in which data are collected from the same individuals at different points in time.
paradigm  A model used for analysis.
parasocial relationship  A situation whereby audience members develop a sense of kinship or friendship with media personalities.
pass-along audience  That portion of a magazine's total audience composed of individuals who pick up copies of a magazine while at the doctor's office, at work, while traveling, and so on.
payola  Bribes of gifts and money paid to DJs by record companies in order to gain favorable airplay for their releases.
pay-per-view (PPV)  A system that allows cable TV subscribers to pay a one-time fee to view one specific program or movie.
penny press  The mass-appeal press of the early 19th century.
persistence of vision  Quality of the human eye that enables it to retain an image for a split second after the image has disappeared.
phi phenomenon  Tendency of the human perceptual system to perceive continuous motion between two stationary points of light that blink on and off; basis for the illusion of motion in motion pictures.
phonograph  A "talking machine" developed by Thomas Edison in the late 1870s; the hand-cranked device preserved sound on a tinfoil-wrapped cylinder.
photojournalism  Journalism in which written text is secondary to photographs in news stories.
pickup  A technique of financing a motion picture.
pilot  The first episode of a projected television series.
pilot testing  A process that involves showing a sample audience an entire episode of a show and recording their reactions.
policy book  At radio and TV stations, a book that spells out philosophy and standards of operation and identifies practices that are encouraged or discouraged.
political press  Newspapers and magazines of the 1790-1820 era that specialized in publishing partisan political articles.
polysemic  Having many meanings.
portal  The first page a person sees when opening an Internet browser.
positioning  In advertising, stressing the unique selling point of a product or service to differentiate it from the competition.
primary audience  That portion of a magazine's total audience made up of subscribers or those who buy it at the newsstand.
primary demand ad  Advertisement that promotes a specific product category, such as milk.
Prime-Time Access Rule  Rule adopted in 1970 intended to expand program diversity by barring network programs from the 7:30-8:00 P.M. (E.S.T.) time slot.
printing on demand  One-at-a-time printing of books that exist in a digital database.
prior restraint  An attempt by the government to censor the press by restraining it from publishing or broadcasting material.
prominence  News value that stresses the importance of the person involved in the event.
prosocial behavior  A general term used by researchers to describe behaviors that are judged desirable or worthwhile under the circumstances.
protocol  A common language accepted by computer programmers.
proximity  News value based on the location of a news event.
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967  Congressional act that established the Public Broadcasting Service.
publicity  The placing of stories in the mass media.
public journalism  The philosophy that newspapers should try to solve civic problems as well as report the news.
publics  The various audience served by public relations.
publishers  Segment of the print media industry responsible for the creation of content.
rack jobbers  Individuals who service record racks located in variety and large department stores by choosing the records to be sold in each location.
Radio Act of 1927  Congressional act establishing the Federal Radio Commission, a regulatory body that would issue broadcasting licenses and organize operating times and frequencies.
rate base  Number of buyers guaranteed by a magazine and used to compute advertising rates.
rating  The ratio of listeners to a particular radio station to all people in the market; the ratio of viewers of a particular TV program to the number of households in the market equipped with TV.
receiver  The target of the message in the communication process.
reinforcement  Support of existing attitudes and opinions by certain messages.
resonance  In cultivation analysis, the situation in which a respondent's life experiences are reinforced by what is seen on TV, thus reinforcing the effect of TV content.
retail (local) advertiser  Business that has customers in only one trading area.
retailers  Segment of the media industry responsible for selling media products to the consumer.
revenue sharing  Process by which video stores share movie rental fees with movie companies.
rough layout  Early version of a print ad.
satellite news gathering (SNG)  Using specially equipped vans and trucks to transmit live stories from any location via satellite.
Sedition Act  Act of Congress passed in the late 1790s that made it a crime to write anything "false, scandalous or malicious" about the U.S. government or Congress; it was used to curb press criticism of government policies.
selective demand ad  Ad that stresses a particular brand.
self-determination  Ethical principle that states that human beings deserve respect for their decisions.
share of the audience  The ratio of listeners to a particular radio station to the total number of listeners in the market; the ratio of the number of households watching a particular TV program to the number of households watching TV at that time.
shield laws  Legislation that defines the rights of a reporter to protect sources.
slander  Spoken defamation. (In many states, if a defamatory statement is broadcast, it is considered libel, even though technically the words are not written. Libel is considered more harmful and usually carries more serious penalties than does slander.)
sliding scale  An arrangement between a motion picture exhibitor and a distributor that details how much box office revenue will be kept by the movie theater.
socialization  The ways an individual comes to adopt the behavior and values of a group.
social responsibility theory  The belief that the press has a responsibility to preserve democracy by properly informing the public and by responding to society's needs.
social utility  The media function that addresses an individual's need to affiliate with family, friends, and others in society.
soft news  Features that rely on human interest for their news value.
source  Person who initiates communication.
spam  The electronic equivalent of junk mail.
status conferral  A process by which media attention bestows a degree of prominence on certain issues or individuals.
stimulation theory  A theory that suggests viewing violence will actually stimulate an individual to behave more violently.
storyboard  A series of drawings depicting the key scenes in a TV ad.
strategic planning  Management technique that sets long-range, general goals.
streaming video  Method of sending TV over the Internet.
subsidiary rights  Rights given by a publisher to others, allowing them to reproduce certain content.
surveillance  The news and information function of the mass media.
survey  A technique of gathering data that typically uses a questionnaire.
tabloid  A heavily illustrated publication usually half the size of a normal newspaper page.
tactical planning  Management technique that sets short-range, specific goals.
target audience  In advertising, the segment of the population for whom the product or service has an appeal.
technological determinism  The theory that contends technology drives historical change.
Telecommunications Act of 1996  Major revision of U.S. communication laws that affected broadcasting, cable, and telephone industries.
text  Object of analysis in the critical/cultural approach.
timeliness  News value that stresses when an event occurred.
time shifting  Recording programs and playing them back at times other than when they were aired.
tracking studies  Study that examines how ads perform during or after a campaign.
trespass  Illegal entry onto another's property.
UHF  The ultra-high-frequency band of the electromagnetic spectrum; channels 14 through 69 on the TV set.
underground press  A type of specialized reporting that emerged in the mid- to late 1960s, with emphasis on politically liberal news and opinion, and cultural topics such as music, art, and film.
uses-and-gratifications model  A model proposing that audience members have certain needs or drives that are satisfied by using both nonmedia and media sources.
utility  Ethical principle that stresses the greatest good for the greatest number.
Variety  The entertainment industry trade publication.
V-Chip  A device installed in a TV set that restricts the reception of violent or objectionable material.
veil of ignorance  Ethical principle that argues that everyone should be treated equally.
VHF  The very-high-frequency band of the electromagnetic spectrum; channels 2 through 13 on the TV set.
web page  A hypertext page contained within a website.
website  A set of hypertext pages linked to each other that contain information about a common topic.
World Wide Web (WWW)  A network of information sources that uses hypertext to link one piece of information to another.
yellow journalism  Sensationalized journalism, appearing during the 1890s, noted for its emphasis on sex, murder, popularized medicine, pseudoscience, self-promotion, and human-interest stories.
zoned edition  Newspaper that has special sections for specific geographic areas.