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Physical Science, 5/e
Bill Tillery, Arizona State University

Building Earths Surface

Chapter 21 Multiple Choice Quiz 2

Please answer all questions


The basic difference in the frame of reference called the principle of uniformity and the catastrophic frame of reference used by previous thinkers is
A)the energy requirements for catastrophic changes is much less.
B)the principle of uniformity requires more time for changes to take place.
C)catastrophic changes have a greater probability of occurring.
D)none of the above.

The difference between elastic deformation and plastic deformation of rocks is that plastic deformation (is)
A)permanently alters the shape of a rock layer.
B)always occurs just before a rock layer breaks.
C)returns to its original shape after the pressure is removed.
D)all of the above.

Whether a rock layer subjected to stress undergoes elastic deformation, plastic deformation, or rupture depends on
A)the temperature of the rock.
B)the confining pressure on the rock.
C)how quickly or how slowly the stress is applied over time.
D)all of the above.

When subjected to stress, rocks buried at great depths are under great pressure at high temperatures, so they tend to undergo
A)no change because of the pressure.
B)elastic deformation because of the high temperature.
C)plastic deformation.
D)breaking or rupture.

A sedimentary rock layer that has not been subjected to stress occurs naturally as
A)a basin, or large downward bulging fold.
B)a dome, a large upwardly bulging fold.
C)a series of anticlines and synclines.
D)beds, or horizontal layers.

The difference between a joint and a fault is
A)the fault is larger.
B)the fault is a long, far-ranging fracture, and a joint is short.
C)relative movement has occurred on either side of a fault.
D)all of the above.

A fault where the footwall has moved upward relative to the hanging wall is called (a)
A)normal fault.
B)reverse fault.
C)thrust fault.
D)none of the above.

Reverse faulting probably resulted from which type of stress?
A)compressional stress
B)pulling-apart stress
C)a twisting stress
D)stress associated with diverging tectonic plates

Earthquakes that occur at the boundary between two tectonic plates moving against each other occur along
A)the entire length of the boundary at once.
B)short segments of the boundary at different times.
C)the entire length of the boundary at different times.
D)none of the above.

Each higher number of the Richter scale
A)increases with the magnitude of an earthquake.
B)means 10 times more ground movement.
C)indicates about 30 times more energy released.
D)means all of the above.