Between 1300 and 1450, famines and plague reduced the number of people in Europe by A) about 10%. B) about one in four. C) about 1/3. D) ONE HALF TO TWO THIRDS!
The plague had all of the following effects EXCEPT A) people afflicted by it bled from the nose or got large tumors and purple spots all over their body. B) it swept through communities like fire through dry tinder. C) it caused people to shun the families of the sick and refugees from afflicted communities. D) it inspired European doctors to make major strides in medicine as they sought a cure for it.
The famines that afflicted fourteenth and fifteenth century Europe resulted from all of the following EXCEPT A) enclosure, which caused cropland to be used for sheep-raising. B) overpopulation, which caused people to depend on poor land. C) excessive rainfall, which caused crops to rot in the fields. D) lack of infrastructure, which meant that relief could not get to the starving.
The initial response of governments to the economic disruption following the Black Death was to A) subsidize technological innovation to adapt to the new reality of high wages. B) pass laws at the expense of the lower classes in order to bolster the upper classes. C) encourage merchants and aristocrats to accept the inevitability of the new situation. D) embark on foreign wars in order to take by force what could no longer be bought.
The labor shortage caused all of the following changes in the status of European peasants EXCEPT A) formerly enserfed peasants in England gained their freedom. B) formerly free peasants in Eastern Europe were enserfed. C) some elements of serfdom were reimposed on the peasants in France, Italy, and Western Germany. D) most, but not all, of the elements serfdom were abandoned in Catalonia
All of the following technological advances occurred in the period after the Black Death EXCEPT A) invention of the astrolabe. B) techniques for making deeper mines. C) more efficient methods of metalworking. D) the rise of clockmaking and printing industries.
By the late fifteenth century the standard of living was generally A) falling, because there were not enough people to do all the work that needed to be done. B) rising, because the labor shortage caused wage and price rises that benefited everyone substantially. C) falling, because the damage done by the famines, plagues, and wars could not be made good. D) rising, because the process of adapting to the economic dislocations resulted in greater efficiency.
Peasant revolts occurred after the Black Death because A) the peasants were so impoverished that they were desperate. B) the peasants were upset that their burdens were increasing rather than decreasing. C) the peasants saw that the upper classes were so depleted that this was their chance to be rid of them. D) the peasants wanted revenge because they blamed the aristocrats for the plague.
The Florentine workers who rebelled in 1378 wanted A) steady work, secure wages, and representation in government. B) control of the city's government and major industries. C) land that they could farm so they could leave the squalid city slums. D) to seize the wealth of the rich and distribute it to the poor.
Popular revolts generally failed because A) the rebels would fall out among themselves before they could achieve success. B) the rebels' violence would alienate the majority of people, who then welcomed the restoration of order. C) the upper classes would make agreements when in danger, but renounce them once the danger had passed. D) the majority of people were content with their lot and would refuse to support the rebels.
The roots of political unrest included all of the following EXCEPT A) dynastic instability caused by the high death rate, which increased succession disputes. B) religious disputes caused by the increased piety of the people, including kings and aristocrats. C) changes in warfare that made it more expensive, leading governments to increase taxes. D) constitutional struggles between kings and representative assemblies.
Nobles enjoyed all of the following privileges EXCEPT A) exemption from most taxes. B) immunity from judicial torture. C) hunting rights. D) guaranteed incomes.
The most important cause of the Hundred Years' War was A) Edward III's claim to the French crown. B) French harassment of English merchants. C) the status of England's territories in France. D) the English threat to Flanders' wool industry.
The course of the Hundred Years' War was influenced by all of the following EXCEPT A) the battlefield superiority of English archers. B) France's size and resources. C) the inability of either side to gain decisive advantage. D) the strength of a series French kings.
Joan of Arc's primary effect on the Hundred Years' War was A) the qualms English soldiers had about fighting a saint. B) the popular support she generated for the king. C) her use of witchcraft to defeat the English. D) her ability to formulate and execute a long term strategy.
The Hundred Years' War had all of the following effects EXCEPT A) established the English parliament's extensive rights to participate in government. B) established the French monarchy's right to collect taxes without consent of the Estates. C) reinforced England's insular character and maritime orientation by removing it from the continent. D) left France in a position to dominate the rest of Europe because of its wealth and standing army.
Which of the following was NOT a city-state in northern Italy A) Milan, a manufacturing center ruled by a despot. B) Venice, a trading center ruled by the leading families. C) Florence, a financial center ruled by a boss. D) Naples, an agricultural center ruled by a king.
The purpose of Cosimo de Medici's alliance system was to A) maintain peace through a balance of power. B) establish Florentine hegemony in Italy. C) cripple Venetian power once and for all. D) keep the French out of Italian politics.
The Fall of Constantinople A) opened the Balkans to Ottoman invasion. B) disrupted the flow of trade between East and West. C) provoked a sudden exodus of scholars to Italy. D) psychologically shocked the Christian world.
All of the following were true of the Ottoman Empire EXCEPT A) it conquered vast territories. B) it enjoyed great richness. C) it persecuted Christianity. D) it lasted over 500 years.