The two traditions about how a sinful human beings can gain salvation are A) (1) Church ritual and (2) good works. B) (1) Good works and (2) clerical intercession. C) (1) Church ritual and (2) individual faith. D) (1) Individual faith and (2) love of God
In the late Medieval period, lay people sought a more personal religious experience through all EXCEPT A) reading the Bible and early Church fathers. B) joining religious orders in unprecedented numbers. C) establishing lay fraternities for worship and charity. D) destroying cosmetics, dice, and other frivolities.
All of the following eroded the prestige of the late Medieval papacy EXCEPT A) its confusion during the Avignon and Schism periods. B) its focus on worldly concerns like power politics. C) its fiscal expedients and extravagant spending. D) the successes of the Ottoman Turks.
New religious ideas were spread in all of the following ways EXCEPT A) sermons by the clergy. B) nightly village gatherings. C) printed books and broadsides. D) works of literature and art.
The Christian Humanists attempted to use humanistic techniques in the service of religion by A) fusing Neoplatonist philosophy with the Christian religion. B) retranslating and reanalyzing the Bible to understand it more accurately. C) refuting nominalism by drawing on ancient authorities. D) showing the parallel between civic Humanism and Christian "good works."
The Holy Roman Empire was ripe for Reformation for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A) in territories ruled by the Church, secular complaints exacerbated spiritual ones. B) its small governments could not resist papal exactions as national monarchs did. C) the Holy Roman Emperor wanted to gain independence from the pope. D) its rulers coveted the Church's wealth and property.
Martin Luther's basic problem was that A) he was unhappy in the career track that he had chosen. B) he identified the pope with his father. C) he felt a righteous God would never forgive his sins. D) he felt unworthy to perform the sacraments.
The pope excommunicated Luther because A) he disputed the legitimacy of indulgences in the 95 Theses. B) he rejected the pope's authority and the validity of the sacraments. C) he refused to recant his beliefs at the Diet of Worms. D) he defied an Imperial edict by accepting protection in Saxony.
Luther's last major act of reform was to A) define the doctrine of consubstantiation to make clear his rejection of transubstantiation. B) translate the Bible into German so ordinary people could read it for themselves. C) organize the Duke of Saxony's church, which became a model for Lutherans elsewhere. D) meet with Zwingli in an attempt to reconcile their interpretations of Christianity.
Popular enthusiasm for Luther's revolt was demonstrated by all of the following EXCEPT A) other preachers and pamphlets criticizing the Church proved a strong draw all over the Empire. B) there were waves of image smashing, reports of priests marrying, and efforts to simplify the sacraments. C) congregations all over the Empire and in neighboring countries began following Luther's teachings. D) radical preachers began calling for Lutheranism to be institutionalized as the Empire's state church.
All of the following groups invoked Luther's ideas to justify taking up arms EXCEPT A) the Swiss cantons. B) the Imperial knights. C) the peasantry. D) the Protestant princes.
Luther's doctrine of the equality of all believers in the eyes of God had all of the following effects EXCEPT A) it justified antimonarchical constitutional theories. B) it originated independent and pioneering behavior among Europeans. C) it allowed people to feel that all occupations were equally worthy. D) it undermined the hierarchic view of the universe.
Zwingli and Luther were unable to resolve their differences on A) who would be the new religion's ultimate leader. B) exactly what happens during communion. C) how much religious leaders should supervise daily life. D) the validity of other reformers besides themselves.
The Melchiorite Anabaptists at Münster did all of the following EXCEPT A) forcibly rebaptized all citizens. B) burned all books but the Bible. C) abolished private property. D) instituted polygamy.
Calvinism was well adapted to struggle against Catholicism for all the following reasons EXCEPT A) its doctrine of predestination instilled firm confidence in its adherents. B) it had a disciplined, hierarchical organization that defined clearly each member's position. C) its tenets were left vague, so different congregations could adapt them to local conditions. D) it had a secure base at Geneva from which to disseminate missionaries propaganda.
Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome A) because of the strength of Lutheranism among his subjects. B) because he was moved by Luther's message. C) in order to cement an alliance with the Emperor. D) to get a divorce.
The pre-existing strengths of the Catholic Church included all of the following EXCEPT A) venerable traditions and splendid ceremonies. B) phenomenal wealth. C) clearly defined doctrines. D) Paul III.
The Council of Trent accomplished all of the following EXCEPT A) clearly reaffirming doctrines challenged by the Protestants. B) establishing the outward, sacramental orientation of the Church. C) strengthening the power of the pope. D) updating the version of the Bible accepted as authoritative.
The most common contribution of women to the Counter-Reformation was A) as mystics. B) through charitable activities. C) by affecting their husbands' faith. D) by founding new orders.
The core element of Ignatius Loyola's new order was A) strictly enforced military discipline. B) carefully structured spiritual experiences. C) rigorous educational preparation. D) flexibility when courting wavering rulers.
All of the following were principal functions of the Society of Jesus EXCEPT A) hearing confessions. B) teaching. C) writing scholarly works. D) performing missionary work.