The Thermidorian reaction involved all of the following EXCEPT A) the fall from power and execution of Robespierre. B) the end of the Terror and the "white terror" against the radicals. C) the end of the Revolution and restoration of the monarchy. D) the reversal of egalitarian political policies and social mores.
The Directory tried to ground itself in the support of the political A) right, the ultraroyalists and moderate royalists hoping for restoration. B) center, the well-to-do citizens who wanted to conserve the accomplishments of 1789 to 1791. C) left, the neo-Jacobins who wanted to preserve the gains of 1793 without the Terror. D) far left, Gracchus Babeuf's collectivist followers who hoped to move the Revolution even farther.
Napoleon's political stature grew because of all of the following EXCEPT A) his brilliant military and diplomatic successes in northern Italy. B) the dependence of the unpopular Directory on military success. C) his personal charisma and talent in manipulating people. D) the success of his military expedition to Egypt.
The "revisionists" enlisted Napoleon in the conspiracy that ended in the Brumaire Coup because A) they recognized his genius and wanted to install him as dictator. B) they hoped to use him as a figurehead since he was very popular. C) they needed the full power of the army to avoid renewed civil war. D) they feared that if they did not include him he would turn on them.
The principles of the Revolution that Napoleon preserved included all of the following EXCEPT A) disdain for the unjust and cumbersome institutions of Bourbon absolutism. B) rejection of seigniorialism and traditional aristocratic privileges. C) commitment to popular sovereignty and representative institutions. D) promotion of rational institutions and equality of opportunity.
The institutional initiatives that Napoleon implemented included all of the following EXCEPT A) concentration of power into his own hands as First Consul, then Consul-for-Life, and finally Emperor. B) subordination of local government to central control through appointed prefects, sub-prefects, and mayors. C) conclusion of a Concordat with the Church ending some revolutionary measures but keeping state control. D) restoration of the rule of law and the abolition of the institutions of police state set up by the Directory.
Napoleon favored the rule of "notables" (talented and wealthy men) through all of the following EXCEPT A) appointing them to positions power and honoring them with distinctions. B) allowing them to elect the experts who staffed the advisory Council of State. C) creating a system of elite secondary schools to prepare future officials, engineers, and officers. D) codifying patriarchy and the rights of property in the Napoleonic Code of civil law.
The Napoleonic Code established all of the following EXCEPT A) legal equality and freedom of worship. B) modern contractual notions of property. C) the right to organize unions and strike. D) the right to choose one's profession.
Napoleon's victories over Austria in 1800 and 1805 established French dominance in A) southern Germany and Italy. B) Italy and Spain. C) northern Germany and Poland. D) the Netherlands and Britain.
Napoleon's victory over Prussia in 1806 established French dominance in A) northern Germany and Poland. B) northern Germany and Russia. C) southern Germany and Italy. D) Italy and Spain.
Napoleon's campaigns against Russia in 1807 to 1808 resulted in A) a crushing victory that gave France control of the Russian Empire. B) a narrow victory that gave France control over Russia's western provinces. C) an agreement that divided Europe into French and Russian spheres of influence. D) a devastating defeat that was the beginning of the end for Napoleon.
Napoleon created the Continental System to cut off British trade with Europe because A) Admiral Nelson's defeat of the French and Spanish navies at Trafalgar made an invasion impossible. B) he calculated that it was the most cost-effective way to bring the British Empire to its knees. C) he realized that protecting European industry would make it stronger than Britain's in the long run. D) Alexander III persuaded him that their joint dominance of Europe would be secured by economic links.
The effects of Napoleon's economic war with Britain included all of the following EXCEPT A) curtailing British business and sparking war-weariness and labor unrest. B) provoking a British counter-blockade that cut Europe off from overseas. C) alienating Napoleon's European subjects, who bore the brunt of the burden. D) forcing Britain to come to terms in order to stave off an economic collapse.
Napoleon was able to insure a flow of new recruits to his army by all of the following means EXCEPT A) assigning quotas to each department, which were then fulfilled by a lottery among all fit 19 year olds. B) sending troops to sweep through areas with high levels of draft evasion to punish evaders' families. C) calling up younger men and older men who had high lottery numbers during emergencies. D) forcing satellite countries and allied nations to send men to join the French army during 1814.
French rule in Spain was resisted by all of the following EXCEPT A) the Spanish army. B) the Bourbon dynasty. C) guerrilla bands. D) an English army.
Of the 600,000 soldiers Napoleon led into Russia, he lost A) less than 50,000. B) around 100,000. C) at least 250,000. D) MORE THAN 500,000!
Prussia built up its strength after the defeat of 1806 by all of the following EXCEPT A) opening more high positions to non-nobles and reducing some noble privileges. B) creating an army reserve to increase the number of men who could be mobilized. C) establishing the concepts of citizenship, representation, and constitutional rule. D) promoting the idea of a war of national liberation "With God for King and Fatherland."
Napoleon's legend rests on all of the following foundations EXCEPT A) his dramatic and manifold achievements in war and government. B) his self-conscious attempts to style his own image during his rule and in his memoirs. C) the congruence of his life with the Romantic concepts of genius and heroism. D) the fact that he was a nice guy.