The five Great Powers at the Congress of Vienna were A) France, England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. B) England, Austria, Spain, Prussia, and Russia. C) Russia, Austria, Sweden, England, and France. D) Austria, Prussia, Russia, England, and Turkey.
Each of the following territorial arrangements were designed to create barriers to French aggression EXCEPT A) Holland got Belgium to create a strong power in the northeast. B) Prussia got territories in the Rhineland to increase its position to the east. C) Austria got territory and influence in Italy to put it firmly to the southeast. D) Spain got Portugal to create a strong power in the southwest.
The Congress of Vienna started all of the following to promote long term stability EXCEPT A) The Concert of Europe. B) The Holy Alliance. C) the Zollverein. D) modern diplomacy.
Nicholas I particularly focused his attention on all of the following to make them pillars of his rule EXCEPT A) the Orthodox Church. B) the army. C) the secret police. D) the bureaucracy.
The Habsburgs had to contend with all of the following sources of opposition EXCEPT A) the aristocracy. B) lawyers and merchants. C) their own bureaucracy. D) Hungarian nationalists.
Prussia's major foreign policy accomplishment in the two decades after the Congress of Vienna was A) dominating the German Confederation. B) creating a German customs union. C) leading the suppression of academic radicalism. D) championing Polish rights against Russian oppression.
The two decades after the Congress of Vienna saw liberal uprisings in all of the following EXCEPT A) Spain in 1820, when a constitutional regime was established until French intervention suppressed it. B) Italy in 1820, when Austrian armies intervened to suppress constitutionalism in Naples and Piedmont. C) Austria in 1825, when Hungarian rebels forced the Emperor to remove Metternich from office. D) France in 1830, when a popular uprising in Paris forced Charles X to abdicate.
The mechanization of manufacturing depended on all of the following EXCEPT A) coal, which provided energy when burned both to run machines and, processed into coke, to smelt iron. B) iron, which was a cheap metal which could be formed into durable machines. C) steam, which was used to transfer the energy of burning coal into the movements of iron machinery. D) horses, which provided the horsepower that was crucial for the operation of heavy machinery.
James Watt's steam engines were used to drive all of the following textile machines EXCEPT A) Arkwright's water frame. B) Crompton's spinning mule. C) Savery's atmospheric engine. D) Cartwright's power loom.
The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars had all of the following economically harmful effects EXCEPT A) destroying resources outright or diverting them into unproductive military activities. B) fostering uneconomical French enterprises under the Continental System. C) stimulating government intervention in the economy, which left a legacy of over-regulation. D) encouraging the overexpansion of British industry, which slumped when peace came.
The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars had all of the following economically helpful effects EXCEPT A) removing restrictions on agricultural and industrial production. B) establishing uniform commercial regulations and weights and measures. C) stimulating government intervention in the economy, resulting in better planning. D) improving transportation networks and methods for mobilizing capital.
Railroads revolutionized transportation in all of the following ways EXCEPT A) by making it possible to move massive quantities of material across country. B) by making it possible for people to move across country more freely. C) by moving things and people more quickly. D) by leading quickly to individual steam-powered vehicles for use on roads.
The areas that industrialized after Britain included A) Barcelona, Naples, Belgium, northern France, and the Netherlands. B) Belgium, northern France, the Netherlands, western Germany, and northern Italy. C) Belgium, northern France, the Netherlands, western Germany, and Saxony. D) Belgium, northern France, the Netherlands, western Germany, and Naples.
Governments contributed to economic development in all of the following ways EXCEPT A) developing transportation and communications, including postal services and in many countries railroads. B) setting tariffs to protect infant industries from mature foreign competitors. C) establishing national banks to facilitate capital mobilization. D) directing the allocation of resources according to a rational master plan.
Factories contributed to industrialization in all of the following ways EXCEPT A) providing a site to house heavy machinery that had to be located in one place. B) facilitating the mobilization of capital through stocks and bank loans. C) making it possible to closely supervise and discipline the labor force. D) acting as centers of gravity for satellite enterprises and residential areas.
All of the following are examples of the process of differentiation EXCEPT A) the separation of work life from home life because of factories. B) the division of economic relationships from social relationships because of money and contracts. C) the proliferation of specialized government agencies to oversee different aspects of life. D) the growing importance of politics in peoples' thoughts and activities.
During the nineteenth century, the idea of the family A) became more important, even as the reality of peoples' lives made it more difficult to maintain. B) became less important, reflecting the decline of affective ties in industrial society. C) did not change much, since the family always had been and remained the foundation of society. D) appeared for the first time, since Europeans had earlier considered themselves members of a clan.
All of the following were typical roles for nineteenth century European women EXCEPT A) small shopkeeper. B) factory worker. C) professional. D) wife and mother.
During the early nineteenth century, the standard of living for the great mass of people A) clearly rose. B) clearly fell. C) seems to have remained the same. D) changed in different ways for different people
During the early nineteenth century, the conditions of life of the great mass of people A) clearly got better. B) clearly got worse. C) seem to have remained the same. D) changed dramatically in ways that were generally demoralizing and frequently debilitating.