The romantic movement involved all of the following EXCEPT A) a conviction that emotion and experience are the sources of the most profound truths. B) a fascination with the power and mystery of nature. C) a celebration of the genius that enabled certain people to convey profound insights through art. D) a reaffirmation of the central importance of the scientific revolution and Enlightenment.
Romanticism was important for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A) it nurtured a tremendous outpouring of creative activity in the arts. B) it contributed to all three of the modern political ideologies: conservatism, liberalism, and socialism. C) it shattered the hold of religion and mysticism on the European mind. D) it counterbalanced the rationality and discipline of the scientific world view in modern culture.
Edmund Burke's conservatism rejected rationally conceived reform efforts because it held that A) "natural" historical development is more reliable than "artificial" plans. B) government regulation is the cause, not the cure, of most social problems. C) the social order is divinely ordained and cannot change. D) privilege is the just reward for superior performance.
The classical political liberalism of the early nineteenth century valued which of the following most? A) Special interests, like education and the poor. B) Maximizing businessmen's profits. C) Individual liberty. D) Social justice.
The classical economic liberalism of the early nineteenth century rested on the assumption that A) the government should actively regulate the economy to promote stability and social justice. B) individuals pursuing their own interests in a free marketplace will optimize economic activity. C) left to its own devices, the "invisible hand" governing the marketplace will bring prosperity to everyone. D) liberty in the marketplace included the liberty of workers to form unions to bargain collectively.
Riccardo's "iron law of wages" extended the sphere of inexorable economic laws to A) social relations. B) international economics. C) government spending. D) metalworking technology.
Utilitarianism changed the theoretical underpinnings of liberalism by A) substituting maximization of pleasure and minimization of pain for natural rights as its basic justification. B) establishing individual liberty as the ultimate purpose of government and source of all good in humanity. C) substituting maximization of pleasure and minimization of pain for tradition as the basis for policies. D) establishing individual liberty is in essence the maximization of pleasure and the minimization of pain.
Utilitarianism, and John Stuart Mills' further thought, had what effect on the liberalism? A) It began to advocate reforms for social justice to achieve the greatest good even at the cost of some liberty. B) It began to advocate liberty for wider social groups in order to approach the ideal of complete freedom. C) It ceased to consider the welfare of the common people as it became the justification for big business. D) It began to advocate reforms for social justice as the essential means of achieving individual liberty.
Saint-Simon, Fourier, and Owen had all of the following in common EXCEPT A) they wanted to create communities in which all people could live well. B) they were as opposed to liberalism as they were to the old order. C) they were never able to put their ideas into practice. D) they were optimistic about human nature.
The aristocracy in the nineteenth century was A) everywhere in steep decline as industrialization undercut the material bases of its power. B) still dominant in industrialized western Europe and was wealthy and influential in the South and East. C) still dominant in agrarian southern and eastern Europe and was wealthy and influential in the West. D) paradoxically able to bolster its position as industrialization advanced through its political power.
The peasantry was substantially affected by all of the following in the early nineteenth century EXCEPT A) the commercialization of agriculture. B) the mechanization of agriculture. C) the decline of the putting-out system D) the removal of feudal obligations.
Factory workers, including children, typically worked A) 8 hours a day, 5 days a week. B) 10 hours a day, 5 days a week. C) 12-14 hours a day, 6 days a week. D) 14-17 hours a day, 6 days a week.
The middle class included all of the following groups EXCEPT A) artisans and substantial farmers. B) shopkeepers, office clerks, and schoolteachers. C) merchants, managers, upper bureaucrats, and professionals. D) bankers and great industrialists.
Europe's population rose from 185 million to 295 million (1800-1870) for all these reasons EXCEPT A) increased opportunities for child labor. B) a decline in disease-carrying germs. C) an increase in the food supply. D) a lowering of the age of marriage.
The rapid growth of huge cities in the early nineteenth century brought all of the following problems EXCEPT A) inadequate sanitation. B) abysmal housing. C) traffic congestion. D) rampant crime.
The most effective social welfare measures came from A) private charities. B) self-help organizations. C) the government. D) business.
While English landlords demanded rents and exported grain from Ireland, the potato famine killed A) thousands of Irish peasants. B) tens of thousands of Irish peasants. C) hundreds of thousands of Irish peasants. D) OVER ONE MILLION Irish peasants.
English reforms in the 1830s included all of the following EXCEPT A) The Reform Bill of 1832 broadening the suffrage and more equitably apportioning representation. B) The abolition of slavery in its colonies, the Factory Act limiting child labor, and the Poor Law. C) The repeal of the Corn Laws and the victory of the Chartists. D) A law granting all resident taxpayers the vote in municipal elections.
Of the Chartist call for full democracy and the campaign against the Corn Laws (tariffs keeping food costly) A) both succeeded by 1850. B) the Chartists succeeded but the Corn Laws remained. C) the Corn Laws were repealed, but the Chartists failed. D) neither passed because of a growing backlash against reform.
The Revolution of 1830 in France had all of the following effects EXCEPT A) toppling Charles X and bringing Louis Philippe to the throne. B) sparking minor revolts in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Germany. C) precipitating a revolution in Poland that freed it from Russia. D) inspiring Belgium to break free from the Netherlands.
In the years after 1830, all of the following were true EXCEPT A) Louis Philippe ruled as a moderate constitutional monarch. B) Mounting tensions in Switzerland led to a civil war that ended with a democratic federation. C) Spain became a constitutional monarchy during a dispute of succession to the crown. D) England degenerated into anarchy as the government resisted all efforts at reform.