The key to survival in an environment based on natural selection involves:
Evolutionary psychology emphasizes:
|A)||the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" to explain behavior.|
|B)||cultural evolution as the dominant type of evolution among humans.|
|C)||genes as the most important determinant for survival.|
|D)||physical and psychological aspects of humans as different determinants of behavior.|
David Buss believes that not only shapes our physical features but also influences our decision making, aggressive behavior, fears, and mating patterns.
According to Baltes, the benefits of evolutionary selection:
|A)||increase with age.|
|B)||decrease with age.|
|C)||remain the same over the life span.|
|D)||first increase in early adulthood, then decrease after the decline in reproductive capacity.|
Albert Bandura criticizes evolutionary psychology because it:
|A)||is "one-sided evolutionism."|
|B)||takes a bidirectional view of development.|
|C)||is too complex.|
|D)||fails to take account of biological processes.|
The units of hereditary information that act as a blueprint for cells to reproduce themselves and manufacture the proteins that maintain life are:
In the process of meiosis:
|A)||the cells divide into gametes, which have half the genetic material of the parent cell.|
|B)||the focus is on cell growth and repair.|
|C)||the number of chromosomes present remains the same.|
|D)||two daughter cells are formed.|
Each human gamete has:
|A)||46 paired chromosomes.|
|B)||46 unpaired chromosomes.|
|C)||23 paired chromosomes.|
|D)||23 unpaired chromosomes.|
The typical female chromosome pattern is:
Traits that are produced by the interaction between two or more genes are called:
A person's genetic heritage is his or her:
The way an individual's genetic heritage is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics is his or her:
The basic premise of the reaction range model is that:
|A)||genetic factors determine an infant's range of behavior and environmental factors determine an adult's behavior.|
|B)||genetic factors determine a possible range of expressions and environmental factors determine the ultimate expression achieved.|
|C)||most behaviors are determined by genetic factors and the environment contributes little to human reactions.|
|D)||most behaviors are determined by the environment and genetic factors contribute little to human reactions.|
The narrow path marking the development of characteristics that appear immune to vast changes in environmental events is called:
Behavioral geneticists believe that behaviors are determined by:
|A)||only biological factors.|
|B)||only environmental factors.|
|C)||biological factors at birth and environmental factors throughout the rest of life.|
|D)||a continuous interaction between biological and environmental factors.|
Down syndrome is caused by:
|A)||an extra chromosome.|
|B)||alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy.|
|C)||the mother's poor nutrition.|
|D)||an extra X chromosome on the 23rd pair.|
Which of these syndromes is NOT sex-linked?
Children who are highly active, easily distracted, and move quickly often elicit adult attempts to quiet them down, punishment for lack of concentration, and angry warnings to slow down. This describes an example of a(n) ______ environment interaction.
All of the following are periods of prenatal development, EXCEPT:
Human fertilization typically takes place in the:
A fertilized ovum is called:
The period of prenatal development that occurs in the first two weeks after conception is called the period.
A skin defect might be traced back to an initial problem with the embryo's cells.
How does the placenta/umbilical cord life-support system prevent harmful bacteria from invading a fetus?
|A)||Bacteria are too large to pass through the placenta walls.|
|B)||The placenta generates antibodies that attack and destroy bacteria.|
|C)||Bacteria become trapped in the maze of blood vessels of the umbilical cord.|
|D)||No one understands how the placenta keeps bacteria out.|
During the second trimester, the amniotic sac is filled mainly with:
While looking over a newborn, a physician notes that the neonate's outer ears are severely deformed. Based on her knowledge of prenatal development, the physician would suspect the damage occurred during the stage of development.
If amniocentesis is performed to determine if a woman's fetus is genetically normal, this will involve:
|A)||taking a blood sample from the mother.|
|B)||drawing a sample of the fluid that surrounds the baby in the womb.|
|C)||taking a sample of the placenta between the 8th and 11th week of pregnancy.|
|D)||taking a blood sample from the fetus.|
involves removal of a small sample of the placenta.
|A)||The alpha-fetoprotein test|
|D)||Chorionic villi sampling|
are important dimensions for providing adequate health care for expectant mothers from various cultural groups.
|B)||Home care remedy evaluations|
|C)||Hospice care options|
|D)||Neonatal care units|
Which phrase best defines a teratogen?
|A)||a life-support system that protects the fetus|
|B)||an agent that stimulates the formation of organs|
|C)||an abnormality in infants of alcoholic mothers|
|D)||an environmental factor that produces birth defects|
Which of the following statements about fetal alcohol syndrome is most accurate?
|A)||The infant is often physically deformed and below average in intelligence.|
|B)||Fetal alcohol syndrome commonly results in miscarriages.|
|C)||Fetal alcohol syndrome causes ectopic pregnancies.|
|D)||Babies suffering from fetal alcohol syndrome are often born before term and with low birthweights.|
A common characteristic of babies born to women who smoke during their pregnancies is:
|A)||a missing arm or leg.|
|B)||facial deformities and below-average intelligence.|
|C)||restlessness and irritability.|
All of the following have been found to endanger the unborn child EXCEPT:
Researchers now believe that maternal stress may lead to birth defects by:
|A)||reducing the amount of oxygen received by the embryo and fetus.|
|B)||increasing the mother's susceptibility to viruses.|
|C)||reducing the likelihood of a good placenta-to-uterus connection.|
|D)||increasing the likelihood of an unusual chromosome split during meiosis.|
Which of the following statements about the relationship between age and pregnancy outcome is most accurate?
|A)||Adolescent mothers are most likely to have retarded children.|
|B)||Artificially inseminated women in their thirties and forties are more likely to become pregnant than those in their twenties.|
|C)||Mothers over age 30 are most likely to have retarded babies.|
|D)||Adolescent mothers suffer the lowest infant mortality rates of any age group.|
Now that Eric and Luz have established their careers and are in their mid-twenties, they are planning to have a baby. In terms of Eric's concerns about the paternal factors that may affect his child, he should be most concerned about:
|A)||his high-stress job as an attorney.|
|B)||the second-hand smoke he encounters in his law office.|
|D)||his low dietary intake of vitamin C.|
Mrs. Peters is experiencing contractions every 2 to 5 minutes. She is in which stage of birth?
Which of the following can lead to anoxia during the birth process?
|A)||having the umbilical cord tighten around the neck of the fetus|
|B)||use of forceps to help ease the infant from the birth canal|
|C)||an episiotomy (surgically widening the vaginal opening)|
A physician might elect to give a pregnant mother an oxytocic if:
|A)||her contractions have stopped.|
|B)||she is bleeding vaginally.|
|C)||she has stopped ovulating.|
|D)||her placenta has partially detached.|
Aisha is using a childbirth strategy that includes a detailed anatomy and physiology course during pregnancy and a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor. She is using which method?
|B)||the Lamaze method|
|D)||the Read method|
During the 1980s, the rate of cesarean deliveries performed in the United States:
The Apgar primarily assesses a newborn's:
|D)||responsivity to people.|
Two-day-old Terry's very low Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale score is often a good indicator that:
|A)||he has brain damage.|
|B)||his mother took heroin while she was pregnant.|
|C)||he will develop a "difficult" temperament.|
|D)||he is unlikely to bond with his primary caregiver.|
A "preterm" baby cannot have gestated for more than weeks.
Which of the following statements about a shortened gestation period is most accurate?
|A)||It is common for low-birthweight infants.|
|B)||It often leads to organ malformation.|
|C)||It is almost always devastating.|
|D)||It alone does not necessarily harm an infant.|
Which of the following statements about bonding between mothers and newborns enjoys supporting evidence?
|A)||The newborn must have sufficiently close contact to bond with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally.|
|B)||Bonding between infant and mother can only occur after standard childbirth.|
|C)||Bonding with mothers is helpful to preterm infants and adolescent mothers.|
|D)||Bonding with the mother is more important for the infant's development than bonding with the father.|