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Santrock Life-Span Development: A Topical Approach
Life-Span Development: A Topical Approach
John W. Santrock

Biological Process, Physical Development, and Health
Physical Development and Biological Aging

Multiple Choice Quiz

Please answer all questions


Which best demonstrates the basic principle of cephalocaudal development?
A)an infant first producing an endogenous smile, then an exogenous smile, then a laugh
B)an infant first being able to raise the head, then sit up, then stand up
C)an infant obtaining visual skills, then olfactory skills, then auditory skills
D)an infant cooing, then babbling, then the first word, then language

The proximodistal progression pattern is seen in children's:
A)drawings, which are first done using the entire arm, and eventually using only the wrist and fingers.
B)toileting behavior, which proceeds from urine control to bowel control.
C)head size, which originally comprises about one-fourth of the body, and eventually only one-eighth of the body.
D)memory, which proceeds from sensory store to short-term to long-term store.

Which statement most accurately describes height and weight changes during infancy?
A)Both increase more rapidly during the second year than during the first year.
B)Girls increase in height and weight faster than boys do during infancy.
C)The sexes grow at the same rate during infancy.
D)Both height and weight increase more rapidly during the first year than during the second year.

Two important factors that can produce individual differences in height are:
A)ethnic origin and nutrition.
B)genetic predisposition and early behavior.
C)central nervous system functioning and reduction of fat intake.
D)standard of living and cost of living.

Which of the following is NOT a condition that can produce unusually short children?
A)physical problems
B)congenital factors
C)emotional difficulties
D)ethnic origin

The period of middle and late childhood involves:
A)slow, consistent growth.
B)rapid, consistent growth.
C)rapid spurts of growth.
D)moderate growth with occasional spurts.

During the elementary school years, body changes occur:
A)at close to the same rate as they occurred during early childhood.
B)much more rapidly than they did during early childhood.
C)in the skeletal and muscular systems.
D)most significantly in the dermal and subdermal systems.

is a period of rapid physical development involving hormonal and bodily changes that occur primarily during early adolescence.

The age at which puberty arrives is _______ with each passing decade.
C)staying the same
D)slowing down

For menarche to begin and continue:
A)a girl must be at least 12 years old.
B)pubic hair must have begun to emerge, demonstrating uterine development.
C)calorie intake must exceed the amount of calories a girl burns up.
D)fat must make up 17 percent of the girl's body weight.

The important endocrine gland(s) for controlling growth and regulating other glands.
A)hypothalamus is an
B)pituitary gland is an
C)thalamus is an
D)gonads are

Whereas is responsible for development of genitals, increase in height, and changes in boys' voices, is associated with breast, uterine, and skeletal development in girls.

The most noticeable changes in body growth for females during adolescence include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A)height spurt.
B)tendencies toward obesity.
C)breast growth.
D)growth of pubic hair.

Recent research about puberty suggests all of the following, EXCEPT:
A)it is advantageous to be an early-maturing rather than a late-maturing boy.
B)early-maturing girls experience more problems in school than late-maturing girls.
C)pubertal variations are less dramatic than is commonly thought.
D)in early adolescence, early-maturing girls show less satisfaction with their figures than do late-maturing girls.

Which of the following might be expected to occur when an individual reaches age 30?
A)greater muscle tone and strength
B)radical changes in the sensory systems
C)sagging chins and protruding abdomens
D)decrease in the body's fatty tissues

Which of the following is NOT a visible sign of aging?
A)the skin begins to wrinkle and sag.
B)small, localized areas of pigmentation in the skin produce aging spots.
C)hair becomes thinner and grayer.
D)fingernails and toenails become thinner.

What changes are noticed in height as a person moves through middle adulthood?
A)It increases.
B)It decreases.
C)Unless there is illness, there is no noticeable change.
D)The findings are contradictory-some people get taller, others get shorter.

Considering normal aging processes, whose blood pressure would be expected to be highest?
A)Sally, a 60-year-old woman who is postmenopausal
B)Cindy, a 40-year-old woman who is premenopausal
C)Carl, a 60-year-old man whose prostate was removed
D)Sam, 40-year-old man whose prostate is still intact

All of the following are typical changes in late adulthood, EXCEPT:
A)weight gain.
B)height loss.
C)increase in blood pressure.
D)decrease in lung capacity.

Myelination improves the efficiency of the central nervous system in the same way that:
A)talking to an infant speeds his ability to produce a first word.
B)reducing the distance between two children playing catch reduces the time it takes for a baseball to travel from one child to the other.
C)the ingestion of certain chemicals (e.g., steroids) can improve overall muscle development.
D)the insulation around an electrical extension cord improves its efficiency.

Charles Nelson has made great strides in finding out about the brain's development in infancy by using:
A)PET scans.
D)CT scans.

The most extensive research on brain lateralization has focused on:
B)visual coordination.
D)motor coordination.

Research on language processing in the brain has found that:
A)virtually all language is carried out in the left hemisphere.
B)virtually all language is carried out in the right hemisphere.
C)in normal people, the complex thinking required to produce language results from communication between both hemispheres.
D)in normal people, tasks involving logical thinking are carried out in the left hemisphere and those involving creative thinking occur in the right hemisphere.

Neuroscientists believe that wires the brain.
A)genetic heritage
B)repeated experience
C)constant stimulation
D)a delicate balance of proteins and amino acids

Recent research using brain scans has found that from ages 3 to 15:
A)the overall size of the brain shows dramatic growth.
B)there are dramatic changes in local patterns within the brain.
C)there are dramatic changes in brain size from age 3 to 6, then a slowing of growth thereafter.
D)many diseases that are manifested later in life can be seen early on.

The most rapid growth in the brain for children aged 3 to 6 takes place in the:
A)frontal lobe areas.
B)temporal lobe areas.
C)parietal lobe.
D)occipital lobe.

A study designed to discover if the brain activity of adolescents differed from that of adults during the processing of emotional information found that:
A)there were no significant differences in where information was processed, but emotional intensity was higher for adolescents than for adults.
B)adolescents were more likely to process emotional information in the amygdala and adults were more likely to process it in the frontal lobe.
C)adolescents were more likely to process emotional information in the frontal lobe and adults were more likely to process it in the amygdala.
D)adolescents were less able than adults to perceive expression of emotion in others.

In the aging brain, at least through the seventies, it appears that:
A)dendritic growth compensates for loss of neurons.
B)neural efficiency is compensated for by neural size.
C)neural cells grow to compensate for loss of myelin.
D)increased neural transmitter production compensates for loss of neurons.

The study of nuns in Mankato, Minnesota (Snowdon, 1995, 1997) has found that:
A)leading a spiritual life reduces the risk of getting Alzheimer's disease.
B)stimulating the brain with mental exercises may increase dendritic branching.
C)a secluded lifestyle combined with a simple diet may reduce the loss of neurons.
D)environmental factors have little effect on reducing the risk of Alzheimer's disease.

Which statement most accurately portrays the sleep/wake cycle of infants?
A)Infants sleep less as they grow older.
B)Newborn sleep is reflexive, whereas infant sleep is intentional.
C)Infants eventually sleep more during the day than they do at night.
D)Infants spend less time sleeping than do adults.

Cross-cultural research demonstrates that infant sleep patterns around the world:
A)are the same.
B)differ for each culture.
C)may relate to mother-child contact.
D)have been steadily changing as humans evolve.

Sleep researchers have found that:
A)infants and adults exhibit similar patterns of REM sleep.
B)infants engage in more REM sleep than adults.
C)adults engage in more REM sleep than infants.
D)adults enter REM sleep earlier in the sleep cycle than infants.

Since 1992, when the American Academy of Pediatrics began recommending that infants , the frequency of SIDS has decreased.
A)sleep on their stomachs
B)sleep on their backs
C)sleep on their sides
D)do not sleep with their mothers

Research comparing sleep patterns of childhood with those of adolescence have found that adolescents:
A)wake up earlier than children.
B)wake up later than children.
C)continue to wake up at the same time they did as children.
D)need less sleep than children.

All of the following are recommendations to help older adults sleep better at night, EXCEPT:
A)avoid caffeine.
B)stay physically active during the day.
C)stay mentally active.
D)take short naps during the day.

With improvements in medicine, nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle, our:
A)life span has increased.
B)life expectancy has increased.
C)life expectancy has stayed the same, but our lives are healthier.
D)life expectancy has dropped, but the quality of life has improved.

Researchers in the New England Centenarian study have found that contributes to living a long life.
A)lack of stress
B)good genes
C)the ability to cope successfully with stress
D)a healthy lifestyle

Women outlive men for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
A)financial status.
B)health attitudes.

The second X chromosome that women have appears to give them a health advantage over men in that it may:
A)counteract the negative effects of free radicals.
B)be associated with production of more antibodies to fight disease.
C)offer greater resistance for dealing with stress.
D)protect women against lung cancer, a leading cause of death in men.

Who would be classified as the "oldest old"?
A)Methusaleh, who is 78
B)Eve, who is 83
C)Noah, who is 88
D)All three are among the oldest old.

Leonard Hayflick believes that cells can divide a maximum of about times and that as we age, our cells become increasingly less capable of dividing.
A)25 to 50
B)50 to 65
C)75 to 80
D)80 to 90

The theory of aging states that people age because inside their cells normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules that ricochet around the cells, damaging DNA and other cellular structures.
B)cellular clock
C)hormonal stress