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Santrock Life-Span Development: A Topical Approach
Life-Span Development: A Topical Approach
John W. Santrock

Socioemotional Processes and Development
Gender and Sexuality

Multiple Choice Quiz


_________ refers to the social and psychological dimensions of being female or male.
C)A gender role
D)Gender typing

The typical female chromosome pattern is:

The class of hormones that primarily promote the development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics is called:

During his embryonic development, there was an insufficient supply of androgens, resulting in Nathan being born with both male and female sex organs. As a consequence, Nathan would be born as a:
D)normal male.

Studies of surgically corrected girls and experiments with different animal species in which male hormones are injected into female embryos, reveal that:
A)biological factors are the strongest influence on gender role development for human and nonhuman species.
B)environmental factors are the strongest influence on gender role development for both human and nonhuman species.
C)biological factors play a stronger role in gender role development for humans than for nonhumans.
D)for humans, gender role development depends on both biological and environmental influences.

The research on sex hormone levels has found that sex hormones:
A)are related to both cognitive abilities and aggression.
B)are related to cognitive abilities, but aggression is learned.
C)are related to aggression, but cognitive abilities are learned.
D)play little, if any, role in an individual's cognitive abilities or aggressive behavior.

The emphasis of evolutionary psychology behavior is on:
A)the importance of adaptation to explain psychological sex differences.
B)cultural evolution as the dominant type of evolution among humans.
C)genes as the most important determinant for survival.
D)physical and psychological aspects of humans as different determinants of behavior.

In the contemporary view of evolutionary psychology:
A)sex-typed features evolved through male competition and led to a reproductive advantage for dominant males.
B)men sought short-term mating strategies because it allowed them to increase their reproductive advantage.
C)women devoted more effort to parenting and chose mates who could provide their offspring with resources or protection.
D)because men competed with other men for access to women, men's evolved dispositions favor violence, competition, and risk-taking.

Critics of evolutionary psychology believe this perspective:
A)neglects the cross-cultural variation in sex differences and mate preferences.
B)takes a bidirectional view of development.
C)is too complex.
D)fails to consider biological processes.

Alice Eagly (2000) locates the cause of physical sex differences in:
A)biologically evolved processes.
B)negative cultural stereotypes.
C)the contrasting positions and social roles of women and men.
D)socially evolved processes.

According to _______ theory, the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the parent of the opposite sex, which the child renounces by about age 5 or 6.
A)social cognitive
B)gender schema
D)cognitive developmental

When Del showed up at kindergarten with a barrette in his hair, his classmate Andrew got upset because he thought if Del wore a barrette he was a girl, not a boy. Andrew has not yet developed:
A)gender constancy.
B)gender schema.
C)sexual identification.
D)gender typing.

_______ theory states that an individual's attention and behavior are guided by an internal motivation to conform to gender-based sociocultural standards and stereotypes.
A)Social cognitive
C)Gender schema
D)Cognitive developmental

Samantha says, "All men are alike. They'd rather drive around in circles for hours than stop and ask for directions." Samantha is demonstrating:
A)gender stereotyping.
B)gender typing.
D)gender role classification.

According to a cross-cultural study of college students' gender attitudes, women were believed to have all of the following attributes, EXCEPT:
D)helpful in times of distress.

When reviewing research comparing males and females, it is important to keep in mind that:
A)even when differences are found, most of the individuals in the groups are virtually identical.
B)it is unfair to compare the groups because almost all gender differences are the result of uncontrollable biological factors.
C)it is only when statistically significant scores are found that you can conclude there is little overlap between male and female scores.
D)even when differences are reported, there is considerable overlap between the sexes.

Which of the following has been found in terms of the physical comparisons of males and females?
A)Females are more vulnerable than males.
B)Females are more likely than males to develop physical or mental disorders.
C)Analyses of metabolic activity in the brain show females to demonstrate greater emotionality than males.
D)Analyses of metabolic activity in the brain show males to demonstrate greater physical expressiveness than females.

For which of the following do investigators continue to find gender differences?
A)verbal skills
B)visuospatial skills
C)social skills

A recent study by the U.S. Department of Education (2000) found that:
A)girls significantly surpassed boys in math skills.
B)boys significantly surpassed girls in verbal skills.
C)boys did slightly better than girls at math and science, but girls were better students than boys.
D)girls did slightly better than boys at math and science, and were also better students than boys.

All of the following gender differences appear to occur across cultures, EXCEPT:
A)boys are more physically and verbally aggressive than girls.
B)boys are more active than girls.
C)girls show just as much persistence as boys.
D)boys show less self-regulation than girls.

According to Alice Eagly (2000), gender differences:
A)are small or nonexistent.
B)are stronger than feminists acknowledge.
C)demonstrate females are more resistant to illness than males.
D)are irrelevant in today's society.

David Buss believes that _______ not only shapes our physical features but also influences our decision making, aggressive behavior, fears, and mating patterns.

Cross-cultural research has demonstrated that:
A)females are more likely than males to help when a perceived danger is present.
B)females are more likely than males to help when they feel competent to help.
C)males are more likely than females to do volunteer work.
D)in cultures where boys and girls both care for younger siblings on a regular basis, they show similar tendencies to nurture.

A woman would most likely be expected to assume subordinate behaviors and less likely to engage in dominant behavior in which country?
A)the United States

J.O. Halliwell's (1844) poem in which he describes girls as being made of "sugar and spice and all that's nice" and boys as made of "snips and snails and puppy dogs' tails" provides a good example of:
A)gender-role transcendence.
B)gender-role classification.
C)gender stereotyping.
D)gender-based prejudice.

The term androgyny refers to a gender role that is:
A)highly masculine.
B)highly feminine.
C)both highly masculine and highly feminine.
D)neither masculine nor feminine.

Jean Baker Miller (1986) believes that the study of women's psychological development:
A)opens up paths to a better understanding of both male and female psychological development.
B)will harm the inroads women have been making in terms of gaining equal status with men.
C)will further the feminist movement.
D)opens the door for women to gain a stronger foothold in the business world.

In her research on intimate relationships, Harriet Lerner (1989) has found that:
A)many men distance themselves from their partner when the going gets rough, rather than work on the relationship.
B)once a person has reached his or her early twenties, it is nearly impossible to learn to move differently in key relationships.
C)it is important for women to bring a strong, assertive, independent, authentic self to their relationships.
D)the future well-being of the world rests on women improving their relationships and men improving their self-development.

According to Deborah Tannen's (1990) analysis of the talk of women and men:
A)lack of communication is high on men's list of reasons for divorce.
B)men use talk for information, women use it for interaction.
C)men are more likely to engage in rapport talk, whereas women are more likely to engage in report talk.
D)it is extremely unlikely that men and women will be able to make the giant leap across the communication gap.

According to Joseph Pleck's (1981, 1995) role-strain view:
A)men need to allow women into the workforce to alleviate men's burden.
B)the male role is contradictory and inconsistent.
C)men have become workaholics out of their macho need to provide for their families.
D)nurturing and being sensitive to others is now being viewed as a way for men to improve their lives.

According to Ron Levant (1995), men should do all of the following to reconstruct their masculinity in more positive ways, EXCEPT:
A)reexamine their beliefs about manhood.
B)embrace the valuable aspects of the female role.
C)separate out the valuable aspects of the male role.
D)eliminate those parts of the masculine role that are destructive.

In terms of parental influences on their children's gender development:
A)fathers usually want their sons to behave independently and engage in rough-and-tumble play.
B)mothers are more likely to engage in playful interaction.
C)mothers are more likely to be given responsibility for ensuring their children conform to cultural norms.
D)fathers are more involved than mothers in socializing their children.

The gender intensification hypothesis states that _______ differences between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence because of increased socialization pressures to conform to traditional gender roles.
A)psychological and behavioral
B)intellectual and emotional
C)sexual and emotional
D)physical and sexual

Studies on gender roles have found that in middle and later adulthood:
A)men feel they must engage in masculine behaviors to feed and protect their families.
B)women must engage in feminine behaviors by nurturing and caring for their families.
C)men become more active and less sensitive in relationships.
D)men become more "feminine" by engaging in traditionally feminine traits.

Who is the best example of the concept of "triple jeopardy"?
A)Maximilian, who is 75 years old, White, and male.
B)Mattia, who is 75 years old, African-American, and female.
C)Carlos, who is 15 years old, Latino, and male.
D)Yeh, who is 15 years old, Asian, and female.

Eula is typical of elderly African-American women in cities. Consequently, we would expect her to value all of the following, EXCEPT:
B)her family.
C)the American work ethic.
D)her religion.

Sexual motivation in humans is influenced by:
B)cultural factors.
C)both hormones and cultural factors.
D)hormones, cultural factors, and education.

Which of the following best reflects societal attitudes toward sex?
A)The Ines Beag culture off the coast of Ireland has more permissive attitudes toward sexuality than in the United States.
B)The Mangaian culture in the South Sea islands has more restrictive attitudes toward sexuality than in the United States.
C)There is wide variation in attitudes toward sex from one culture to another.
D)With only a few exceptions (i.e., cultures that are either extremely permissive or extremely conservative), attitudes toward sexuality are relatively universal.

_______ scripts are stereotyped patterns of expectancies for how people should behave sexually.

A study of sexual activity by Michael et al. (1994) found all of the following, EXCEPT:
A)married couples have sex more than single people.
B)the favorite sexual act was oral sex.
C)adultery is the exception rather than the rule.
D)men think about sex far more than women do.

Recent research exploring the biological bases of homosexuality has found:
A)homosexuals and heterosexuals have different physiological responses during sexual arousal.
B)if male homosexuals are given male sex hormones, their sexual orientation changes.
C)exposure of the fetus to hormone levels characteristic of females might cause an individual to become attracted to males.
D)an area of the hypothalamus that governs sexual behavior has been found to be twice as large in homosexual males as in heterosexual males.

Laura Brown (1989) has suggested that gays and lesbians can best adapt to a world in which they are a minority by:
A)getting therapy to help them change their sexual orientation.
B)getting therapy to help them adjust to the stigmatism of being homosexual.
C)living in a primarily gay or lesbian world.
D)developing an identity that balances the minority gay/lesbian culture and the majority heterosexual culture.

The most common of all sexually transmitted diseases is:
D)genital herpes.

AIDS CANNOT be transmitted by:
A)intimate sexual contact.
B)sharing needles.
C)blood transfusions.
D)contact with urine.

Andrea and Tom are at a point in their relationship where they will soon become sexually intimate. They would be wise to protect themselves against STDs by taking which of the following precautions?
A)ask about each other's previous sexual encounters
B)obtain medical examinations
C)apply petroleum jelly to condoms before using them
D)promise to be monogamous

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of rapists?
A)They use aggression to enhance their sense of power.
B)They have an abnormal need for sexual pleasure.
C)They are generally angry at women.
D)They want to hurt and humiliate their victim.

Which of the following is TRUE concerning rape?
A)A man cannot rape his wife.
B)Rape is a traumatic experience for the victim and those close to her.
C)Men cannot be raped.
D)Many women actually want to be raped.

Sexual harassment is:
A)a manifestation of power and domination of one person over another.
B)so blatant that it is hard to miss.
C)becoming less prevalent because of awareness.
D)less prevalent than the media would have us believe.

As a child matures into adolescence, interest in sexuality:
A)is considered normal.
B)is a risk factor.
C)becomes abnormal.
D)inhibits cognitive development.

Adolescents who engage in homosexual behavior in adolescence:
A)will increase their homosexual practices into adulthood.
B)do not necessarily continue the practice into adulthood.
C)may benefit from counseling aimed at helping them become heterosexual.
D)are usually only exploring their newly budding sexuality.

David, a homosexual male, engaged in "passing" during adolescence. This would mean David:
A)frequented gay bath houses.
B)encouraged his heterosexual friends to engage in homosexual activities.
C)hid his homosexual identity.
D)let people close to him know that he was homosexual.

According to a 1998 study by the Alan Guttmacher Institute, initial sexual intercourse occurs _______ for most teenagers.
A)around age 12
B)by age 15
C)in the early- to mid-adolescent years
D)in the mid- to late-adolescent years

With respect to use of contraceptives:
A)adolescent girls are increasing their use, but adolescent boys are decreasing their use.
B)adolescent boys are increasing their use, but adolescent girls are decreasing their use.
C)both adolescent boys and girls are increasing their use.
D)both adolescent boys and girls are decreasing their use.

The teenage birth rate:
A)is lower now than it was in the 1950s and 1960s.
B)is about the same as it was in the 1950s and 1960s.
C)is higher than it was in the 1950s and 1960s.
D)has been growing steadily since the 1950s.

All of the following are health risks for infants of adolescent mothers, EXCEPT:
A)low birthweight.
B)neurological problems.
C)childhood illness.

The Teen Outreach Program, which involves adolescents in volunteer community service, has been successful in lowering all of the following, EXCEPT:
A)teen smoking.
B)adolescent pregnancy.
C)school failure rate.
D)academic suspension.

In a large-scale study of Americans in midlife, Brim (1999) found that for women who had experienced menopause, most reported that menopause was a _______ experience.
C)neutral tending toward positive
D)neutral tending toward negative

What is the basis of erroneous beliefs about menopause?
A)Most women experience them.
B)The beliefs conform well with gender-typed beliefs about middle-age women.
C)The research is based on small, select samples of women.
D)Drug companies promote them to sell their products.

The American Geriatric Association recommends that:
A)postmenopausal women should consider hormone replacement therapy.
B)women who have had hysterectomies should avoid estrogen replacement therapy.
C)the benefits of hormone replacement therapy outweigh the risks in women who are at increased risk for breast cancer.
D)women need to rely heavily on their doctor's advice when deciding whether they should use hormone replacement therapy.

What type of hormonal changes do middle-aged men experience?
A)loss of their capacity to father children
B)modest increase in sexual activity
C)psychological adjustment to declining physical energy
D)a dramatic drop in testosterone levels

When compared to that in early adulthood, sexual activity during middle adulthood is:
A)more frequent.
B)less frequent.
C)about the same.
D)more dependent on physical activity.

A study by Matthias et al. (1997) of more than 1,200 adults with a mean age of 77 found that:
A)over half of them had participated in sexual activity in the past month.
B)two-thirds were satisfied with their current level of sexual activity.
C)almost 75 percent of them had discontinued having sex within the past 5 years.
D)the men were more sexually active than the women.

The sex education therapy for older adults reporting sexual difficulties led to all of the following, EXCEPT increased:
A)sexual interest