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Which of the following series of events represents the path of vertebrate development?
A)formation of blastula, cleavage, neurulation, cell migration, gastrulation, organogenesis, growth
B)formation of blastula, cleavage, gastrulation, neurulation, cell migration, organogenesis, growth
C)cleavage, formation of blastula, gastrulation, neurulation, cell migration, organogenesis, growth
D)cleavage, gastrulation, formation of blastula, neurulation, cell migration, organogenesis, growth

Which of the following statements about Drosophila development is FALSE?
A)Drosophila go through four larval instar stages before undergoing metamorphosis.
B)During the syncytial blastoderm stage, nuclei line up along the surface of the egg.
C)Imaginal discs are groups of cells set aside that will give rise to key parts of the adult fly.
D)Maternal, rather than zygotic, genes govern early Drosophila development.

If a plant embryo failed to form enough ground tissue, what function(s) would likely be directly affected in the corresponding mature plant?
A)seed formation
B)meristem development
C)cotyledon formation
D)food and water storage

C. elegans is a powerful developmental model because
A)these nematodes are very small, so it is easy to maintain a large population in a laboratory.
B)the fate of every cell has been mapped.
C)the fate of cells that will become eggs and sperm are predetermined.
D)these nematodes have the same amount of DNA as Drosophila.

Which of the following best describes a morphogen?
A)a cell that secretes diffusible signaling molecules that play a role in specifying cell fate
B)a diffusible signaling molecule that plays a role in specifying cell fate
C)a protein that helps mediate direct cell-cell interaction
D)a protein that enables cells to become totipotent

What would happen as a result of a transplantation experiment in a chick embryo in which cells determined to become a forelimb were replaced by some cells determined to become a hindlimb?
A)A hindlimb would form in the region where the forelimb should be.
B)A forelimb would form in the region where the hindlimb should be.
C)Nothing; the forelimb would form normally.
D)Neither a forelimb nor a hindlimb would form because the cells were already determined.

Which group of genes, identified by Nusslein-Volhard and Caroll, is responsible for the final stages of segmentation in Drosophila embryos?
A)morphogen gradient genes
B)gap genes
C)segment-polarity genes
D)pair-rule genes

Suppose that during a mutagenesis screen to isolate mutations in Drosophila, you came across a fly with legs growing out of its head. What gene cluster is likely affected?

What would be the likely result of a mutation of the bcl-2 gene on the level of apoptosis?
A)no change
B)a decrease in apoptosis
C)an increase in apoptosis
D)First it would increase, but later it would decrease.

The gene clock hypothesis is best described by which of the following explanations?
A)Mutations accumulate partially through the addition of an -OH group to the base guanine.
B)Specific genes exist to promote longevity.
C)Free radicals can cause genetic mutations, particularly when we are sleeping.
D)Calorie restriction leads to an increased life span.

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