1). How many species of fungi are thought to exist?
c). 1.5 million
d). 1.5 billion
2). Which of the following is not a characteristic of the fungi?
a). They are all absorptive heterotrophs.
b). They have cell walls made of chitin.
c). Mitosis takes place within the nuclear membrane.
d). They are all motile.
3). A mycelium is
a). a specialized reproductive structure of a fungus.
b). a mass of connected fungal hyphae.
c). a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a plant.
d). a partition between the cells of fungal hyphae.
4). Which of the following statements best describes fungi?
a). All are eukaryotic, multicellular autotrophs.
b). All are eukaryotic heterotrophs that feed by absorption.
c). All are prokaryotic, multicellular autotrophs.
d). All are eukaryotic heterotrophs that feed by ingestion.
5). A wildlife pathologist is examining some skin tissue from a dead frog. She notes the presence of a fungus. She cultures some of the fungal cells and notices that some of the cells are flagellated. She concludes that the frog has a fungal disease caused by
a). an ascomycete.
b). a zygomycete.
c). a basdiomycete.
d). a chytrid.
6). You are walking in the woods and see a fungus that is unfamiliar to you. You remove a reproductive structure, and take it home to examine further. When you look at it under the microscope, you find a zygosporangium. Based on this information alone, this fungus is a(n)
7). A basidium is typically observed in the common
a). bread mold.
b). gilled mushroom.
8). An ascomycete can be distinguished from other fungi
a). because ascomycetes are mainly diploid.
b). because ascomycetes lack a dikaryotic phase.
c). by the presence of eight sexual spores in an ascus.
d). by the presence of gills on the mycelium.
9). A lichen can be described as a mutualistic symbiosis between an ascomycete and a(n)
c). green alga.
d). angiosperm root.
Test Your Visual Understanding
1). This is a diagram of the life cycle of a typical bread mold.
a). Is this sexual or asexual reproduction?
b). On this diagram, indicate where in the life cycle meiosis takes place.
c). Label the reproductive structures of this fungus.
d). To what group of fungi does this organism belong?
b). –on diagram
c). –on diagram
2). Two equal-sized plots of Italian ryegrass were grown, one with an done without endophytes. Each plot was exposed to aphids in the experiment shown above.
a). What conclusion would you draw from the experimental results?
b). What advantages and disadvantages does the ryegrass have in an endophytic relationship?
Answer: 2a).There are fewer aphids on ryegrass plants that are grown with endophytes than without endophytes. The endophyte appears to protect the ryegrass from aphid infection.
2b). Advantage: The endophytic relationship appears to protect the ryegrass from aphids that drain plant nutrients and leave excrement on the leaves that can lead to fungal infection of the leads.
Disadvantage: It is possible that the ryegrass provides endophytes with some nutrients in exchange for protection.