1). Sexual reproduction
a). requires internal fertilization.
b). does not require meiosis.
c). increases the genetic diversity within a population.
d). often occurs between individuals of different species.
2). An animal that is oviparous reproduces by
a). giving birth to free-living young.
b). producing internally fertilized eggs that develop externally.
c). producing eggs that are fertilized externally.
d). incubating eggs internally while the fetus develops.
3). The testicles of male mammals are suspended in the scrotum because
a). the optimum temperature for sperm production is less than the normal core body temperature of the organism.
b). the optimum temperature for sperm production is higher than the normal core body temperature of the organism.
c). there is not enough room in the pelvic area for the testicles to be housed internally.
d). it is easier for the body to expel sperm during ejaculation.
4). Spermatogenesis is not directly affected by which hormones?
5). Eggs and sperm are genetically very similar, but structurally very different. Why is this so?
a). Both contain a haploid chromosome number, but eggs must provide nutrients for early development, while sperm must be able to move efficiently.
b). Both contain a diploid chromosome number, but eggs must provide nutrients for early development, while sperm must be able to move efficiently.
c). Both contain maternal chromosomes, but only sperm can control which chromosomes are passed on.
d). Both contain a haploid chromosome number, but only eggs can control which chromosomes are passed on.
6). How would mammalian reproduction be affected if the meiotic strategy of spermatogenesis and oogenesis were reversed?
a). Not enough eggs would be made each month to ensure reproductive success.
b). Sperm production would decrease to one-fourth.
c). Eggs would be diploid while sperm would be haploid.
d). Sperm would be diploid while eggs would be haploid.
7). Early in the ovarian cycle, estrogen, produced in the follicle, ______________ gonadotropin release, while later in the cycle, estrogen _______________ gonadotropin release because
a). inhibits; stimulates; feedback mechanisms are not involved early in the ovarian cycle.
b). stimulates; inhibits; feedback mechanisms are not involved early in the ovarian cycle.
c). inhibits; stimulates; the feedback mechanisms are dependent on the concentration of estrogen.
d). stimulates; inhibits; the feedback mechanisms are dependent on the concentration of estrogen.
8). At what stage of the ovarian cycle are mammalian eggs most likely to become fertilized?
a). at the beginning of the proliferative phase
b). immediately after ovulation
c). during the middle of the secretory phase
d). during the menstrual phase
9). If we could monitor the amount of total gonadotropin activity in pregnant women, we would expect
a). high levels of FSH and LH in the uterus to stimulate endometrial thickening.
b). high levels of circulating FSH and LH to stimulate implantation of the embryo.
c). high levels of hCG in the uterus to stimulate endometrial thickening.
d). high levels of circulating hCG to stimulate estrogen and progesterone synthesis.
10). Which contraceptive method is effective at preventing fertilization and protecting against transmission of sexually transmitted disease?
a). oral contraceptives
d). intrauterine device (IUD)
Test Your Visual Understanding
1). The process of oogenesis involves a number of developmental stages and structures. Label this diagram by writing the name of the correct structure next to the appropriate letter:
a). Primary follicles
b). Developing follicle
c). Mature follicle with secondary oocyte
d). Ruptured follicle
e). Secondary oocyte
f). Corpus luteum
Apply Your Knowledge
1). Sex determination in mammals is influenced by the SRY region of the Y chromosome. If during meiosis, this region of the Y chromosome was accidentally translocated to an X chromosome and this gamete went on to fertilize an egg, what would be the gender of this offspring?
Answer: This individual would be genetically female, but develop as a male due to the presence of the SRY region.