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Historically, island species have tended to become extinct faster than species living on a mainland. Which of the following reasons cannot be used to explain this phenomenon?
A)Island species have often evolved in the absence of predators and have no natural avoidance strategies.
B)Humans have introduced diseases and competitors to islands, which negatively impacts island populations.
C)Island populations are usually smaller than mainland populations.
D)Island populations are usually less fit than mainland populations.

An endemic species is
A)one found in many different geographic areas.
B)one found naturally in just one geographic area.
C)one found only on islands.
D)one that has been introduced to a new geographic area.

Conservation hotspots are best described as
A)areas with large numbers of endemic species that are disappearing rapidly.
B)areas where people are particularly active supporters of biological diversity.
C)islands that are experiencing high rates of extinction.
D)areas where native species are being replaced with introduced species.

Which of the following does not distinguish the current mass extinction event from past events?
A)This is the only extinction event to be triggered by a single species.
B)This is the only extinction event from which biodiversity may not recover.
C)This is the only extinction event in which the majority of losses are occurring in mainland areas.
D)This is the only extinction event in which the majority of losses are occurring on islands.

The ability of an intact ecosystem, such as a wetland, to buffer against flooding and filter pollutants from water is a(n) ________ value of biodiversity.
A)direct economic
B)indirect economic

Which of the following is currently considered the leading cause of extinction?
A)overexploitation of species
B)competition from introduced species
C)habitat loss

What percentage of Madagascar's original forests have been lost due to human activity?

Numbers of migratory songbirds are declining in North America. Which of the following factors is important in this decline?
B)human disruption of breeding behavior
C)habitat fragmentation in the United States
D)global climate change

Most large whale species have been driven to the brink of extinction. Which of the following is the most accepted explanation for this situation?
B)habitat loss
D)competition from introduced species

A keystone species is one that
A)has a higher likelihood of extinction than a nonkeystone species.
B)exerts a strong influence on an ecosystem.
C)causes other species to become extinct.
D)has a weak influence on an ecosystem.

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