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Hughes: Leadership, 4e
Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience, 4/e
Richard L Hughes, Center for Creative Leadership
Robert C Ginnett, Center for Creative Leadership
Gordon J Curphy, The Blandin Foundation

Leadership and Change

Chapter 13 Summary

This chapter began by revisiting the topic of leadership and management. Management skills are important to ensure compliance with existing systems, processes, and procedures; they are used to help preserve the status quo, improve consistency and efficiency, and maintain control. Leadership skills are needed when changes need to be made to existing systems and processes; they are used to create new systems and drive organizational change. The chapter then reviewed two major approaches to organizational change. Although independent lines of research were used to develop the rational and emotional approaches to change, in reality these approaches have several important similarities. With the rational approach, leaders increase follower dissatisfaction by pointing out problems with the status quo, systematically identifying areas of needed change, developing a vision of the future, and developing and implementing a change plan. In the emotional approach, leaders develop and articulate a vision of the future, heighten the emotions of followers, and empower followers to act on their vision. Charismatic leaders are also more likely to emerge during times of uncertainty or crisis, and may actually manufacture a crisis to improve the odds that followers will become committed to their vision of the future. The rational approach puts more emphasis on analytic, planning, and management skills whereas the emotional approach puts more emphasis on leadership skills, leader-follower relationships, and the presence of a crisis to drive organizational change. This chapter described the steps leadership practitioners must take if they wish to drive organizational change. There is ample evidence to suggest that either the rational or emotional approach can result in organizational change, but the effectiveness of the change may depend on which approach leadership practitioners are most comfortable with and the skill in which they can carry it out.