According to the textbook, _________ is a coherent set of related concepts that seeks to organize and explain __________.
One of the key concepts introduced by Erikson was ____________-an unsettling period, usually in adolescence or young adulthood, in which people search for sense of self and of meaning in their lives.
|D)||industry versus inferiority|
According to the textbook, the mechanistic perspective:
|A)||emphasizes qualitative change.|
|B)||proposes a continuous view of development.|
|C)||proposes a discontinuous view of development.|
|D)||stresses both qualitative and quantitative changes.|
Whether a researcher is actually measuring what he or she claims to be measuring concerns the ________ of a study.
External validity is concerned with:
|A)||the generalizability of the results.|
|B)||the magnitude of a correlation.|
|C)||how participants are selected.|
|D)||the verification of findings.|
Principles of the scientific method do NOT include:
|B)||the observation and recording of data.|
|C)||public dissemination of findings and conclusions.|
|D)||petitioning government agencies to fund important research.|
A self-report may involve ________ and be susceptible to ___________.
|A)||keeping a diary; lying|
|B)||case studies; experimenter effects|
|C)||a questionnaire; age confounds|
|D)||experiments; poor memory|
Which of the following is a typical characteristic of experiments?
|A)||Does not establish cause-effect relationships|
|B)||Establishes cause-effect relationships that can be replicated by others|
|C)||Provides detailed picture of one person's behavior|
|D)||Measures direction and magnitude of a relationship between variables|
Case studies and experiments are types of _________; however, behavioral observations and self-reports are types of ________;
|A)||data collection; research designs|
|B)||research designs; data collection|
|C)||research designs; correlational studies|
|D)||research designs; research designs|
A recent study suggests that there is a strong relationship between a college education and Alzheimer's disease. College-educated persons were less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than less educated persons. Which one of the following correlations best reflects this finding?
Compared to a true experiment, a quasi experiment:
|A)||is conducted outside the laboratory.|
|B)||lacks control based on random assignment.|
|C)||has greater problems with internal validity.|
|D)||both b and c|
A time-lag study confounds:
|A)||age and cohort|
|B)||age and time of measurement|
|C)||cohort and time of measurement|
|D)||age and time of measurement|
Dr. Rolf wants to examine how religious beliefs change with biological age. He believes that as people age they become more conservative in their religious beliefs. Collecting data from two groups of adults, 30-year-olds and 70-year-olds, he finds that the older subjects were more conservative than the younger subjects. Why will he be UNABLE to conclude that adults become more conservative with age?
|A)||Because he did not use a control group|
|B)||Because of possible time-of-measurement effects|
|C)||Because of possible cohort effects|
|D)||Because his study was longitudinal|
The use of deception in a study contradicts which of the following principles of research ethics?
|C)||Protection from harm|
|D)||Right to decline or withdraw from an experiment|
The Tuskegee study, a classic illustration of the need for informed consent, began in _____ and was ended by a congressional investigation in ______.