At the beginning of the seventeenth century, composers found Palestrina's polyphonic style more suitable for secular songs rather than church music.
During the Baroque, the old style of writing (Palestrina's polyphony) and the new style (monody) were used for different purposes.
The composer who suggested that the old and new styles represented the "first" and "second" practices of music was
|D)||Johann Sebastian Bach.|
For thirty years, Monteverdi was choirmaster at St. Mark's in Venice, where __________ had composed and performed great works in the Venetian polychoral style.
|C)||Johann Sebastian Bach|
|D)||George Frideric Handel|
Monteverdi shared __________ taste for dramatic and emotional settings of madrigal texts, using dissonance for expressive purposes.
|C)||Johann Sebastian Bach's|
|D)||George Frideric Handel's|
During the Renaissance period, dissonances could only be approached and resolved according to strict rules.
Monteverdi allowed the __________ of his songs, rather than the prevailing rules of music theory, to determine his use of dissonance.
The "first practice" of music, as identified by Monteverdi, is described by all of the following except that
|A)||all of the voices are nearly equal in importance.|
|B)||it uses Palestrina's style of choral polyphony.|
|C)||text expression is more important than the music.|
|D)||it is often used in church music.|
The "second practice" of music, as identified by Monteverdi, is described by all of the following except that
|A)||the texture is usually homophonic.|
|B)||music dominates the text.|
|C)||it uses dissonance expressively.|
|D)||it is often used in secular music.|
In the first practice, the established rules of music theory were observed; in the second practice, the rules might be broken for the purpose of better expressing the words.
All of the following are characteristics of Monteverdi's madrigal compositions except
|A)||he used the old stile antico for madrigals, recognizing certain tonal principles.|
|B)||he used the bass line as an organizing and stabilizing element, giving the music a sense of direction.|
|C)||he used the triad as a chord, recognizing a rudimentary relationship between triads.|
|D)||as tonality became more firmly established, he used both chromaticism and dissonance more freely.|
In the sixteenth century, short but spectacular music dramas called __________ were often performed between acts of a play.
__________ sometimes constituted "mini" music dramas, with different voices or combinations of voices answering each other in dialogue form.
It was the Florentine monodists who introduced a new type of vocal writing eminently suited for dramatic recitation; thus, the earliest operas consisted almost entirely of monody.
The text of an opera is called a(n)
Early opera librettos were
|A)||based on Greek mythology.|
|B)||often set to music by many different composers.|
|C)||usually performed by small casts and accompanied by a few instruments.|
|D)||all of the above. |
Composers recognized two distinct types of solo singing, each implied but not achieved by monody: the recitative and aria.
The invention of monody was important to Western music because it demonstrated that
|A)||the harpsichord could accompany singers with great expression.|
|B)||solo singers could project their voices with enough volume to fill a concert hall.|
|C)||a solo singer could combine beautiful music with dramatic text expression.|
|D)||all of the above.|
All of the following are characteristics of a recitative except
|A)||the melody of a recitative reflects unnatural vocal inflections.|
|B)||the rhythm of a recitative is free or flexible.|
|C)||a recitative is flexible in form, adaptable to the demands of the text.|
|D)||the texture of a recitative is generally homophonic.|
All of the following are characteristics of an aria except
|A)||an aria provides an emotional reaction to events and is well adapted to the Baroque doctrine of affections.|
|B)||arias often have soaring melody lines, displaying the beauty of the voice.|
|C)||an aria has unmetered rhythm.|
|D)||an aria has formal design, as in the da capo aria (A B A).|
In 1607, Claudio Monteverdi composed the opera Orfeo.
__________ was the first composer to realize the successful music drama requires a skillful blending of the literary, visual, and lively arts.
|C)||Johann Sebastian Bach|
|D)||George Frideric Handel|
Monteverdi's "Tu se' morta" is an example of a(n) __________ from the opera Orfeo.
The first public opera house opened in __________, Italy, in 1637.
The term __________ is Italian for "beautiful singing."
All of the following are characteristics of late Baroque, bel canto opera except
|A)||interest in the beauty of the singing voice.|
|B)||emphasis on dazzling vocal performances.|
|C)||close attention to the recitatives and the dramatic integrity of the story.|
|D)||the tendency of singers to take liberties with the melody lines.|
Although castrati were admired for the extreme range and power of their voices, a taste for women's voices developed during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
Another name for a virtuoso female singer is a
By the end of the Baroque era, professional opportunities for women to direct court or church ensembles were still largely denied.
By the 1720s, audiences were tiring of the highly stylized Baroque opera, so a new dramatic form, the __________ opera, became popular in England.
In 1728, English poet and playwright __________ wrote the Beggar's Opera, ridiculing some of the more obvious limitations of Baroque opera.
The epitome of the Baroque composer, __________, was born in Germany, spent considerable time in Italy, and eventually became a British citizen.
|A)||George Frideric Handel|
|B)||Johann Sebastian Bach|
Although the oratorio shares many characteristics with the opera, its most important difference is its
|B)||emphasis on vocal drama. |
|C)||religious subject matter.|
|D)||use of elaborate arias.|
Like an aria, an oratorio chorus has formal design, metered rhythm, and an orchestral accompaniment; it may be either homophonic or polyphonic and often includes sections of both textures.
The world's best-known and best-loved oratorio is Handel's
The date of __________ death (1750) is generally accepted as the end of the Baroque period.
|A)||George Frideric Handel's|
|B)||Johann Sebastian Bach's|
Johann Sebastian Bach wrote two large choral works called __________, oratorios based upon the events leading to the crucifixion of Christ.
Since Bach was Catholic, he wrote the Mass in B Minor to attract the favorable attention of an influential Catholic Elector.
Bach wrote nearly 200 dramatic religious vocal works called __________, which are short oratorios.
The term cantata originally meant a piece to be