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Adolescence 9/e Book Cover
Adolescence, 9/e
John W. Santrock, University of Texas, Dallas

Moral Development, Values, and Religion

Key Terms

altruism  Unselfish interest in helping another person.
autonomous morality  The second stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences.
care perspective  The moral perspective of Carol Gilligan, that views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others.
character education  A direct moral education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior or doing harm to themselves or others.
cognitive disequilibrium theory  Hoffman's theory that adolescence is an important period in moral development, in which, because of broader experiences associated with the move to high school or college, individuals recognize that their set of beliefs is but one of many and that there is considerable debate about what is right and wrong.
cognitive moral education  Is based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops; Kohlberg's theory has been the basis for many of the cognitive moral education approaches.
conscience  The component of the superego that involves behaviors disapproved of by parents.
conventional reasoning  The second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Internalization is intermediate. Individuals abide by certain standards (internal), but they are the standards of others (external), such as parents or the laws of society.
ego ideal  The component of the superego that involves ideal standards approved by parents.
empathy  Reacting to another's feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the other's response.
forgiveness  This is an aspect of altruism that occurs when an injured person releases the injured from possible behavioral retaliation.
heteronomous morality  The first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring at 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.
hidden curriculum  The pervasive moral atmosphere that characterizes schools.
immanent justice  Piaget's concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately.
induction  A discipline technique in which a parent uses reason and explanation of the consequences for others of a child's actions.
internalization  The developmental change from behavior that is externally controlled to behavior that is controlled by internal standards and principles.
justice perspective  A moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions.
love withdrawal  Is a discipline technique in which a parent removes attention or love from the child.
moral development  Thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong.
postconventional reasoning  The highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Morality is completely internalized.
power assertion  A discipline technique in which a parent attempts to gain control over a child or a child's resources.
preconventional reasoning  The lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The individual shows no internalization of moral values-moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishment.
service learning  A form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community.
social cognitive theory of moral development  The theory that distinguishes between moral competence-the ability to produce moral behaviors-and moral performance-those behaviors in specific situations.
values  Beliefs and attitudes about the way people think things should be.
values clarification  Helping people to clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for. Students are encouraged to define their own values and understand others' values.