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Adolescence 9/e Book Cover
Adolescence, 9/e
John W. Santrock, University of Texas, Dallas

The Self and Identity

Learning Goals

1.0 Evaluate the Adolescent's Self-Understanding

A. The Self

1.1 How is self-understanding defined?

B. The Dimensions of Adolescents' Self-Understanding

1.2 What are the dimensions of adolescents' self-understanding?

1.3 What is the difference between the real and ideal self, and the true and false self?

1.4 What is meant by possible self?

1.5 What is social comparison?

1.6 What does it mean to be self-conscious and self-protective?

1.7 What is self-integration?

C. Self-Understanding and Social Concepts

1.8 What is meant by adolescents having multiple selves?

2.0 The Adolescent's Self-Esteem and Self-Concept

A. Self-Esteem and Self-Concept

2.1 What is self-esteem?

2.2 What is self-concept?

B. Measuring Self-Esteem and Self-Concept

2.3 How do you measure an adolescent's self-esteem?

2.4 What is Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents?

2.5 Why is it good to use multiple measures to assess self-esteem?

C. Are Some Domains More Salient than Others to the Adolescent's Self Esteem?

2.6 How important is perceived physical appearance to an adolescent's self-esteem?

2.7 What role does peer acceptance play in the self-esteem of adolescents?

D. Parental and Peer Influences

2.8 What parental influences and behaviors are associated with boy's self-esteem?

2.9 What role do peer judgments play in self-esteem?

2.10 Is classmate support more strongly linked to self-esteem than close-friend support?

E. Consequence of Low Self-Esteem

2.11 What is the consequence of low self-esteem for most adolescents?

2.12 What are the ramifications for some adolescents when low self-esteem persists?

2.13 What can happen if self-esteem is compounded by difficult school transitions?

F. Increasing Adolescents' Self-Esteem

2.14 What are four ways that adolescents' self-esteem can be improved?

2.15 Why should adolescents be taught to value competence?

3.0 Discuss Erikson's Ideas on Identity, Identity Statuses, and Developmental Changes

A. Erikson's Ideas on Identity

3.1 What is the meaning and significance of Erikson's fifth stage, identity versus identity confusion?

3.2 What is psychosocial moratorium as it relates to identity development?

3.3 What is revealed by Erikson's insights?

B. Personality and Role Experimentation

3.4 According to Erikson, what do personality and role exploration have to do with identity development?

C. Some Contemporary Thoughts on Identity

3.5 What are some contemporary views of identity development?

3.6 How long does identity development take?

3.7 Is identity development complex?

D. The Four Statuses of Identity

3.8 What is Marcia's view of identity?

3.9 What are the four statuses of identity?

3.10 What are the characteristics of identity diffusion and identity foreclosure?

3.11 How is crisis identified?

3.12 How is commitment identified?

3.13 What is identity moratorium?

3.14 What does Marcia mean by identity achievement?

3.15 What is the role of crisis and commitment in Marcia's theory of identity statuses?

3.16 What are the criticisms of Marcia's identity statuses?

E. Developmental Changes

3.17 What three aspects of the young adolescent's development are important in identity formation?

3.18 What are "MAMA" cycles?

4.0 Links Between Identity and Family Influence, Culture and Ethnicity, and Gender

A. Family Influence

4.1 How do parents influence adolescents' identity development?

4.2 What is individuality?

4.3 What is connectedness?

4.4 What family processes promote adolescent identity development?

4.5 What do adolescent individuality and connectedness have to do with identity development?

B. Cultural and Ethnic Aspects of Identity

4.6 What emphasis did Erikson place on the role of culture in identity development?

4.7 What is meant by ethnic identity?

4.8 Why is adolescence a special juncture in the identity development of ethnic minority individuals?

4.9 What is Helms' Model of Ethnic Identity Development?

C. What Role Does Gender Play In Identity?

4.10 Do ethnic minority individuals have bicultural gender identities?

4.11 Do adolescent males have a stronger vocational identity than females?

4.12 Do female adolescents have a stronger social identity than males?

5.0 Explain Identity and Intimacy

A. Intimacy

5.1 What are the features of Erikson's sixth stage, intimacy versus isolation?

5.2 What are the characteristics of Orlofsky's intimate style, preintimate style, stereotyped style, pseudointimate style, and isolatedstyle of intimate interaction?

5.3 What is the difference between White's self-focused level, role-focused level, and individuated-connected level of relationship maturity?

B. Loneliness

5.4 When are adolescents most likely to feel lonely?

5.5 What is loneliness associated with?

5.6 According to Weiss, what is the difference between emotional isolation and social isolation?

5.7 How can individuals reduce their loneliness?