Human fertilization typically occurs in the:
A fertilized ovum is called:
The period of prenatal development that occurs in the first two weeks after conception is called the ________ period.
Which of the following events does NOT occur during the embryonic period?
|A)||rate of cell differentiation intensifies|
|B)||support systems for the cells form|
|D)||finger nails and toe nails form|
A skin defect might be traced to an initial problem with the embryo's __________ cells.
How does the placenta/umbilical cord life-support system prevent harmful bacteria from invading a fetus?
|A)||Most bacteria are too large to pass through the placental wall.|
|B)||Bacteria become trapped in the maze of the umbilical cord's blood vessels.|
|C)||The placenta generates antibodies that attack and destroy the bacteria.|
|D)||No one understands how the placenta keeps bacteria out.|
During the second trimester, the amniotic sac is filled mainly with:
Organogenesis takes place during which stage of development?
During which stage of development can the unborn baby's genitals be identified as male or female?
What is the first time a fetus has a chance of surviving outside the womb?
|D)||eight and a half months|
Which phrase best defines a teratogen?
|A)||a life-support system that protects the fetus|
|B)||an agent that stimulates the formation of organs|
|C)||an abnormality of infants in alcoholic mothers|
|D)||an agent that produces birth defects|
The severity of the damage and the type of defect that occurs from a teratogen is influenced by all of the following, EXCEPT:
|A)||location of the teratogenic agent.|
|B)||dose of the teratogenic agent.|
|C)||time of exposure.|
In general, the unborn child is more vulnerable to teratogens during the __________ period.
A disorder that is 100% preventable, in which children are born with facial deformities; defective limbs, face, and heart; below-average intelligence; and possible mental retardation is:
|B)||fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).|
|C)||sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).|
To be absolutely sure that there will be no negative effects on the fetus, what does the text suggest in terms of guidelines for alcohol use during pregnancy?
|A)||no more than one 4-ounce glass of wine a day; no other alcoholic beverages|
|B)||no more than one 4-ounce glass of any alcoholic beverage a day|
|C)||no more than three 4-ounce glasses of wine or one 4-ounce glass of other alcoholic beverage a day|
|D)||no alcohol during pregnancy|
A common characteristic of babies born to women who smoke cigarettes during their pregnancies is:
|A)||a missing limb.|
|B)||facial deformities and below-average intelligence.|
|C)||restlessness and irritability.|
|D)||preterm delivery and lower birthweights.|
When a woman has a negative Rh factor in her blood, her partner has a positive Rh factor, and the fetus's blood is Rh positive:
|A)||antibodies in the mother provide the fetus with extra immune substances that most other children do not have.|
|B)||antibodies in the mother may attack the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, anemia, heart defects, brain damage, or death soon after birth.|
|C)||the first pregnancy will be at-risk, but by subsequent pregnancies the mother will have developed antibodies to protect the fetus.|
|D)||the mother will need to have a blood transfusion after each Rh positive child is born.|
All of the following are environmental hazards to prenatal development, EXCEPT:
|D)||prolonged exposure to heat.|
Maternal diseases or infections can produce defects in the baby by:
|A)||lowering the mother's immune system.|
|B)||crossing the placental barrier.|
|C)||interfering with delivery of nutrients.|
|D)||reducing the amount of oxygen flowing to the baby.|
A mother with AIDS can infect her baby in each of the following ways, EXCEPT:
|A)||in conception through mutated genes.|
|B)||during gestation across the placenta.|
|C)||during delivery through contact with maternal blood or fluids.|
|D)||postpartum through breastfeeding.|
Researchers believe that maternal stress may lead to birth defects by:
|A)||reducing the amount of oxygen received by the fetus.|
|B)||increasing the mother's susceptibility to viruses.|
|C)||reducing the likelihood of a good placenta-to-uterus connection.|
|D)||increasing the likelihood of an unusual chromosome split during meiosis.|
Men's exposure to lead, radiation, pesticides, and petrochemicals may lead to:
|C)||diseases such as childhood cancer.|
With regard to prenatal development, Santrock suggests that it is important to:
|A)||keep in mind that for most pregnancies, prenatal development does not go awry.|
|B)||be constantly vigilant to avoid any and all types of behaviors or environments that could harm the unborn child.|
|C)||take a somewhat negative perspective of potential problems in order to avoid any harm to the unborn child.|
|D)||take the most positive perspective possible and minimize any concerns about potential problems in order to avoid harm to the unborn child.|
Raul and Elena learn that Elena is pregnant. Their physician is most likely to tell them that their "due date":
|A)||is calculated according to the first date of Elena's last menstrual period.|
|B)||cannot be calculated because they are not sure when the baby was conceived.|
|C)||is calculated according to the first time they had sexual intercourse after Elena's last menstrual period.|
|D)||has a one-month range, depending on when the baby was conceived.|
The period during which the expectant mother is most likely to experience the greatest amount of nausea is the:
|D)||entire period of pregnancy.|
Maternal weight gains that are associated with the best reproductive outcomes are:
|A)||10 to 20 pounds.|
|B)||25 to 35 pounds.|
|C)||30 to 45 pounds.|
|D)||35 to 60 pounds.|
Which of the following is NOT recommended during the latter part of pregnancy?
Which of the following is NOT true about the effects of exercise during pregnancy?
|A)||Exercise helps prevent constipation.|
|B)||Exercise conditions the body.|
|C)||Exercise can present major risk factors for most pregnant women.|
|D)||Exercise is associated with a positive mental state.|
The high incidence of low-birthweight occurrence in the United States is explained by all of the following, EXCEPT:
|A)||pregnant women in the United States do not receive the uniform prenatal care that women in other countries receive.|
|B)||the United States lacks a national health care policy to assure high-quality assistance for pregnant women.|
|C)||more than 25 percent of American women of prime childbearing age do not have insurance to cover hospital costs.|
|D)||the quality of care provided by medical practitioners in the United States is substandard.|
With respect to cultural beliefs about pregnancy, health care providers should:
|A)||explain to the expectant mother that these practices are likely to harm her child.|
|B)||accept them, because to change the mother's belief system is likely to cause more harm than good.|
|C)||assess which practices may pose a threat to the expectant mother and fetus.|
|D)||have an indigenous healer assist with the delivery.|