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Children 7/e Book Cover
Children, 7/e
John W. Santrock, University of Texas, Dallas



afterbirth  the third stage of birth, when the placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled.
(See 130)
analgesia  drugs used to alleviate pain, such as tranquilizers, barbiturates, and narcotics.
(See 134)
anesthesia  drugs used in late first-stage labor and during expulsion of the baby to block sensation in an area of the body or to block consciousness.
(See 134)
anoxia  the insufficient availability of oxygen to the fetus/newborn.
(See 130)
Apgar Scale  a widely used method to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth. The Apgar Scale evaluates infants' heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability.
(See 140)
bonding  close contact, especially physical, between parents and their newborn in the period shortly after birth.
(See 145)
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale  a test given several days after birth to assess newborns' neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people.
(See 142)
breech position  the baby's position in the uterus that causes the buttocks to be the first part to emerge from the vagina.
(See 135)
cesarean delivery  the baby is removed from the mother's uterus through an incision made in her abdomen. This also is sometimes referred to as cesarean section.
(See 135)
doula  a caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support to the mother before, during, and just after childbirth.
(See 133)
involution  the process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size.
(See 144)
low birth weight infant  weighs less than 5 pounds at birth.
(See 138)
natural childbirth  developed in 1914 by Dick-Read, it attempts to reduce the mother's pain by decreasing her fear through education about childbirth and relaxation techniques during delivery.
(See 134)
oxytocics  drugs that are synthetic hormones designed to stimulate contractions.
(See 134)
postpartum period  the period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbirth. This period lasts for about six weeks, or until her body has completed its adjustment and has returned to a near-prepregnant state.
(See 144)
prepared childbirth  developed by French obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze, this childbirth strategy is similar to natural childbirth but includes a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor and a more detailed anatomy and physiology course.
(See 134)
preterm infants  those born three weeks or more before the pregnancy has reached its full term.
(See 139)
small for date (small for gestational age) infants  those whose birth weight is below normal when the length of pregnancy is considered.
(See 139)