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Difficult Multiple Choice
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1
What accounts for the gray color of gray matter?
A)presence of Nissl bodies
B)absence of myelin
C)both of the above
D)neither of the above
2
Bundles of neurofilaments extending into dendrites and axons to provide structural support are called
A)nodes of Ranvier
B)nerve fibers
C)neurotubules
D)neurofibrils
3
The phrase "terminally differentiated," as applied to mature neurons, means that they
A)cannot regenerate damaged parts
B)process energy differently after reaching maturity
C)cannot divide mitotically to produce daughter cells
D)have axon terminals specialized for impulse conduction
4
Although they outnumber ____________ by as much as ten to one, ____________ account for only about half of the total volume of the nervous system.
A)neuroglia; neurons
B)neurons; glial cells
C)interneurons; sensory neurons
D)astrocytes; oligodendrocytes
5
Their methods are different, but ____________ in the CNS and ____________ in the PNS perform similar functions.
A)astrocytes; neurolemmocytes
B)oligodendrocytes; neurolemmocytes
C)microglia; satellite cells
D)ependymal cells; satellite cells
6
Which glial cells behave much like certain leukocytes?
A)microglia
B)ependymal cells
C)oligodendrocytes
D)satellite cells
7
Although classified as glial cells, ____________ are also ____________ that line the cavities in the brain and spinal cord and help form the choroid plexus.
A)astrocytes; phagocytes
B)microglia; phagocytes
C)ependymal cells; epithelial cells
D)oligodendrocytes; epithelial cells
8
In the PNS, an axon may be enveloped by ____________ without being ____________.
A)neurolemmocytes; myelinated
B)oligodendrocytes; myelinated
C)satellite cells; in a ganglion
D)endoneurium; in a nerve
9
Which glial cells participate in the repair of damaged nerves?
A)satellite and ependymal cells
B)neurolemmocytes
C)oligodendrocytes
D)astrocytes and microglia
10
Which nervous system divisions or components contain no afferent neurons?
A)somatic and visceral sensory
B)CNS and PNS
C)PNS and ANS
D)ANS and SNS
11
Ironically, a ____________ neuron typically has more dendrites than a ____________ neuron.
A)bipolar; multipolar
B)unipolar; multipolar
C)unipolar; bipolar
D)sensory; multipolar
12
A multipolar neuron that synapses on a gland cell is functionally classified as
A)a visceral motor neuron
B)a somatic motor neuron
C)a sensory neuron
D)an interneuron
13
In terms of nerve impulse conduction, unmyelinated is to ____________ as myelinated is to ____________.
A)oligodendrocytes; neurolemmocytes
B)neurolemmocytes; oligodendrocytes
C)continuous; saltatory
D)saltatory; continuous
14
A nerve impulse involves ____________ across a neuron's plasma membrane.
A)changes in voltage
B)movement of ions
C)both a and b
D)neither a nor b
15
Axon regeneration in the CNS is restricted by which of the following factors?
A)oligodendrocytes do not release a nerve growth factor
B)crowded axons in the brain and spinal cord complicate regrowth
C)astrocytes and connective tissue coverings may form obstructive scar tissue
D)all of the above
16
At a chemical synapse, ____________ are found only in the plasma membrane of the ____________ cell.
A)neurotransmitters; postsynaptic
B)receptor proteins; postsynaptic
C)neurotransmitters; presynaptic
D)receptor proteins; presynaptic
17
Synapses are categorized on the basis of
A)point of contact and mode of impulse transmission
B)direction of signal and speed of impulse transmission
C)size of synaptic knob and mode of impulse transmission
D)shape of synaptic knob and speed of impulse transmission
18
Which structural classes of neurons are always sensory in function?
A)multipolar and unipolar
B)unipolar and bipolar
C)bipolar and multipolar
D)unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar
19
The ____________ is the only functional class of neuron entirely restricted to the ____________ nervous system.
A)association neuron; central
B)sensory neuron; central
C)motor neuron; peripheral
D)interneuron; peripheral
20
Which of the following are structural, as opposed to functional, divisions of the nervous system?
(1) CNS (2) SNS (3) PNS (4) ANS
A)1 and 2
B)2 and 4
C)3 and 4
D)1 and 3
21
With regard to control of effectors, ____________ is to involuntary as ____________ is to voluntary.
A)somatic; visceral
B)somatic; peripheral
C)autonomic; somatic
D)central; peripheral
22
Sensory neurons in which of the following locations receive and transmit only visceral input?
(1) skin (2) joints (3) heart (4) fascia (5) stomach
A)1 and 2
B)3 and 5
C)3, 4, and 5
D)2, 3, 4, and 5
23
Touch, vibration, and proprioception are examples of
A)special visceral senses
B)general visceral senses
C)special somatic senses
D)general somatic senses
24
Which statement is false regarding neural circuits?
A)converging circuits provide multiple input to a single postsynaptic neuron
B)diverging circuits spread information from one neuron or pool to several others
C)in parallel-after-discharge circuits, a single input leads to multiple individual outputs
D)in reverberating circuits, feedback repeatedly stimulates the circuit in a cyclic pattern
25
Increased dietary intake of vitamin B12 and ____________ during pregnancy can dramatically reduce the incidence of neural tube defects such as ____________.
A)ascorbic acid (vitamin C); neuritis and demyelination
B)folic acid (folate); anencephaly and spina bifida
C)pantothenic acid; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
D)iron; Guillain-Barré syndrome







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