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Difficult Multiple Choice
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1
Which of the following characteristics of the SNS is also true of the ANS?
A)no peripheral ganglia
B)single neuron extends from CNS to effector
C)conducts motor impulses to peripheral effectors
D)ACh released onto all effectors
2
Thoracolumbar is to ____________ as craniosacral is to ____________.
A)rami communicantes; prevertebral ganglia
B)paravertebral; sympathetic trunk
C)cholinergic; adrenergic
D)sympathetic; parasympathetic
3
Any visceral motor neuron found in the CNS must be
A)a ganglionic neuron
B)a preganglionic neuron
C)a secondary neuron
D)an upper motor neuron
4
Which structures are found in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS?
A)cholinergic axons
B)intramural ganglia
C)collateral ganglia
D)pelvic splanchnic nerves
5
One preganglionic axon synapsing on numerous ganglionic neurons is known as
A)sympathetic dispersion
B)parallel outflow
C)neuronal divergence
D)neuronal convergence
6
Released by all somatic motor and parasympathetic axons as well as preganglionic and even some postganglionic sympathetic axons, the most common neurotransmitter is
A)acetylcholine
B)norepinephrine
C)epinephrine
D)serotonin
7
The effects of ____________ from the adrenal medulla last longer than those of the same chemical released by typical sympathetic postganglionic axons.
A)acetylcholine
B)norepinephrine
C)epinephrine
D)serotonin
8
Which cranial nerves transmit parasympathetic preganglionic axons?
A)III, IV, and VI
B)VI, VII, X, and XI
C)IV, IX, XI, and XII
D)III, VII, IX, and X
9
A tumor in a prevertebral ganglion could alter the function of the
A)heart and lungs
B)digestive, urinary, or sex organs
C)intrinsic eye muscles
D)sweat glands or arrector pili muscles
10
Which of the following is not a sympathetic ganglion?
A)inferior mesenteric
B)superior mesenteric
C)pterygopalatine
D)celiac
11
Sympathetic preganglionic axons serving the abdominopelvic viscera synapse in separate, unpaired
A)paravertebral ganglia
B)prevertebral ganglia
C)autonomic plexuses
D)intramural ganglia
12
Paravertebral and ____________ are to sympathetic as terminal and ____________ are to parasympathetic.
A)sympathetic trunk; prevertebral
B)prevertebral; collateral
C)collateral; intramural
D)chain; prevertebral
13
The adrenal medulla pathway is very unusual in that ____________ axons directly innervate the effector organ.
A)parasympathetic preganglionic
B)parasympathetic postganglionic
C)sympathetic preganglionic
D)sympathetic postganglionic
14
Neurons originating in the sympathetic trunk ganglia project to their effectors via
A)spinal nerves and postganglionic sympathetic nerves
B)pelvic splanchnic nerves and white rami communicantes
C)thoracic and lumbar splanchnic nerves
D)all of the above
15
Which statement about rami communicantes is false?
A)white rami contain myelinated, preganglionic axons
B)gray rami contain unmyelinated, postganglionic axons
C)more spinal nerves have gray rami than white rami
D)both ANS divisions contain rami communicantes
16
Parasympathetic stimulation is typically
A)prolonged and widely distributed
B)brief but widely distributed
C)brief and restricted to specific sites
D)prolonged but restricted to specific sites
17
In both divisions of the ANS, ____________ axons release the neurotransmitter ____________.
A)cholinergic; norepinephrine
B)cholinergic; acetylcholine
C)adrenergic; norepinephrine
D)adrenergic; acetylcholine
18
Although there are sympathetic synapses of both types, parasympathetic synapses are always ____________, never ____________.
A)electrical; chemical
B)chemical; electrical
C)adrenergic; cholinergic
D)cholinergic; adrenergic
19
In the abdominal cavity, the ____________ consists of the celiac plexus, superior mesenteric plexus, and inferior mesenteric plexus.
A)myenteric plexus
B)lumbosacral plexus
C)abdominal aortic plexus
D)hypogastric plexus
20
The components of the abdominal aortic plexus are named with the same adjectives as the corresponding
A)prevertebral ganglia and arteries
B)chain ganglia and lymphatic vessels
C)splanchnic nerves
D)postganglionic sympathetic nerves
21
In the sympathetic division, the ____________ ganglia are paired, but the ____________ ganglia are not.
A)terminal; intramural
B)intramural; terminal
C)prevertebral; sympathetic trunk
D)sympathetic trunk; prevertebral
22
The various ____________ are composed mostly of ____________ axons, although from different divisions of the ANS.
A)splanchnic nerves; postganglionic
B)splanchnic nerves; preganglionic
C)autonomic plexuses; postganglionic
D)autonomic plexuses; preganglionic
23
Axons from which autonomic plexus innervate digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs of the pelvic cavity?
A)celiac
B)superior mesenteric
C)inferior mesenteric
D)hypogastric
24
Upon entering the abdominopelvic cavity, parasympathetic preganglionic axons of the vagus nerve join which plexus?
A)celiac
B)cardiac
C)esophageal
D)hypogastric
25
All of the following structures develop from embryonic neural crest cells except
A)ganglionic neurons
B)gray rami communicantes
C)white rami communicantes
D)adrenal medullae







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