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Simple Multiple Choice
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1
All of the following are effectors innervated by the ANS except
A)smooth muscle fibers
B)cardiac muscle fibers
C)skeletal muscle fibers
D)glands
2
The cell bodies of ganglionic neurons are located in ____________ outside the CNS.
A)autonomic ganglia
B)posterior root ganglia
C)autonomic plexuses
D)visceral motor nuclei
3
The axon of a ganglionic neuron is called a
A)ganglionic axon
B)preganglionic axon
C)postganglionic axon
D)somatic motor axon
4
The ____________ division innervates visceral organs and tissues throughout the body, while the ____________ division innervates only visceral structures served by cranial nerves or lying in the abdominopelvic cavity.
A)parasympathetic, sympathetic
B)sympathetic, parasympathetic
C)visceral sensory, visceral motor
D)preganglionic, postganglionic
5
The ____________ division's conservation of energy and promotion of sedentary activities, such as digestion, are reflected in its common nickname.
A)thoracolumbar
B)sympathetic
C)parasympathetic
D)visceral motor
6
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system
A)has preganglionic axons originating from the brain and sacral spinal cord
B)has preganglionic axons synapsing in terminal or intramural ganglia
C)is also called the parasympathetic division of the ANS
D)all of the above
7
Effects of stimulation by the parasympathetic division are more ____________ than those of the sympathetic division.
A)discrete and localized
B)divergent and widespread
C)rapid and intense
D)excitatory and long-lasting
8
Which one of the following characterizes the parasympathetic division?
A)preganglionic neurons originating in spinal segments T1-L2
B)ganglia located near the vertebral column and descending aorta
C)long preganglionic axons and short postganglionic axons
D)gray rami communicantes attached to all spinal nerves
9
Parasympathetic ganglia located within the wall of a target organ are called
A)collateral ganglia
B)paravertebral ganglia
C)terminal ganglia
D)intramural ganglia
10
Nearly 80% of all parasympathetic preganglionic axons are transmitted through which cranial nerve?
A)oculomotor
B)facial
C)glossopharyngeal
D)vagus
11
Parasympathetic preganglionic axons arising from the spinal cord form
A)thoracic splanchnic nerves
B)pelvic splanchnic nerves
C)lumbar splanchnic nerves
D)sacral splanchnic nerves
12
All of the following are innervated by the parasympathetic division except
A)blood vessels, sweat glands, and arrector pili muscles
B)pupillary constrictor muscle of the eye
C)lacrimal glands and glands of the nasal cavity
D)most abdominal and all pelvic viscera
13
Because of the location of its preganglionic neuron cell bodies, the sympathetic division is also called the ____________ division.
A)prevertebral
B)paravertebral
C)craniosacral
D)thoracolumbar
14
Which of the following does not describe the sympathetic division of the ANS?
A)preganglionic axons leave the thoracic and upper lumbar spinal segments
B)nicknamed the "rest-and-digest" division
C)preganglionic axons synapse in ganglia near the spinal cord
D)also called the "fight-or-flight" division
15
What are the two types of sympathetic ganglia?
A)terminal and intramural
B)sympathetic trunk and prevertebral
C)prevertebral and collateral
D)paravertebral and terminal
16
Every spinal nerve receives a ____________ ramus that carries postganglionic axons from a ganglion of the sympathetic trunk.
A)gray
B)white
C)posterior
D)anterior
17
Preganglionic axons enter the nearby sympathetic trunk ganglia by way of
A)autonomic nerves
B)posterior roots
C)white rami
D)gray rami
18
Organs in the thoracic cavity, such as the heart and lungs, are innervated by
A)thoracic spinal nerves
B)postganglionic sympathetic nerves
C)thoracic splanchnic nerves
D)all of the above
19
Sympathetic preganglionic axons that do not synapse in a sympathetic trunk ganglion form
A)splanchnic nerves
B)autonomic plexuses
C)gray rami communicantes
D)intercostal nerves
20
Postganglionic axons from the prevertebral ganglia innervate which of the following?
A)glands and smooth muscle tissue in organs of the head and neck
B)the heart, lungs, and other thoracic viscera
C)most of the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity
D)all of the above
21
Sympathetic pathways include all of the following except the
A)spinal nerve pathway
B)anterior pituitary pathway
C)adrenal medulla pathway
D)postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway
22
During a crisis, the rapid stimulation of many sympathetic neurons produces the phenomenon called
A)diffuse agitation
B)sympathetic synergy
C)simultaneous outflux
D)mass activation
23
In autonomic plexuses, sympathetic ____________ axons mingle (but do not synapse or interact) with parasympathetic ____________ axons.
A)preganglionic; postganglionic
B)postganglionic; preganglionic
C)postganglionic; postganglionic
D)preganglionic; preganglionic
24
Which neurotransmitter is released by all preganglionic axons?
A)norepinephrine
B)epinephrine
C)acetylcholine
D)adrenaline
25
Which neurotransmitter is released by most sympathetic postganglionic axons?
A)norepinephrine
B)epinephrine
C)acetylcholine
D)dopamine
26
Axons that release norepinephrine onto their effectors are called
A)excitatory
B)inhibitory
C)cholinergic
D)adrenergic
27
Which structure secretes hormones that potentiate (prolong) the effects of sympathetic stimulation?
A)adrenal cortex
B)adrenal medulla
C)anterior pituitary
D)posterior pituitary
28
Organs with both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve supply are said to have
A)dual innervation
B)dysautonomia
C)coordinated function
D)autonomic bivalence
29
In organs innervated by postganglionic axons from both ANS divisions, the actions of the two typically have what kind of effects?
A)complementary
B)inhibitory
C)antagonistic
D)cooperative
30
The integration and command center for autonomic functions is the
A)cerebral cortex
B)hypothalamus
C)brainstem
D)spinal cord







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