All of the following are effectors innervated by the ANS except
|A)||smooth muscle fibers|
|B)||cardiac muscle fibers|
|C)||skeletal muscle fibers|
The cell bodies of ganglionic neurons are located in ____________ outside the CNS.
|B)||posterior root ganglia|
|D)||visceral motor nuclei|
The axon of a ganglionic neuron is called a
|D)||somatic motor axon|
The ____________ division innervates visceral organs and tissues throughout the body, while the ____________ division innervates only visceral structures served by cranial nerves or lying in the abdominopelvic cavity.
|C)||visceral sensory, visceral motor|
The ____________ division's conservation of energy and promotion of sedentary activities, such as digestion, are reflected in its common nickname.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system
|A)||has preganglionic axons originating from the brain and sacral spinal cord|
|B)||has preganglionic axons synapsing in terminal or intramural ganglia|
|C)||is also called the parasympathetic division of the ANS|
|D)||all of the above|
Effects of stimulation by the parasympathetic division are more ____________ than those of the sympathetic division.
|A)||discrete and localized|
|B)||divergent and widespread|
|C)||rapid and intense|
|D)||excitatory and long-lasting|
Which one of the following characterizes the parasympathetic division?
|A)||preganglionic neurons originating in spinal segments T1-L2|
|B)||ganglia located near the vertebral column and descending aorta|
|C)||long preganglionic axons and short postganglionic axons|
|D)||gray rami communicantes attached to all spinal nerves|
Parasympathetic ganglia located within the wall of a target organ are called
Nearly 80% of all parasympathetic preganglionic axons are transmitted through which cranial nerve?
Parasympathetic preganglionic axons arising from the spinal cord form
|A)||thoracic splanchnic nerves|
|B)||pelvic splanchnic nerves|
|C)||lumbar splanchnic nerves|
|D)||sacral splanchnic nerves|
All of the following are innervated by the parasympathetic division except
|A)||blood vessels, sweat glands, and arrector pili muscles|
|B)||pupillary constrictor muscle of the eye|
|C)||lacrimal glands and glands of the nasal cavity|
|D)||most abdominal and all pelvic viscera|
Because of the location of its preganglionic neuron cell bodies, the sympathetic division is also called the ____________ division.
Which of the following does not describe the sympathetic division of the ANS?
|A)||preganglionic axons leave the thoracic and upper lumbar spinal segments|
|B)||nicknamed the "rest-and-digest" division|
|C)||preganglionic axons synapse in ganglia near the spinal cord|
|D)||also called the "fight-or-flight" division|
What are the two types of sympathetic ganglia?
|A)||terminal and intramural|
|B)||sympathetic trunk and prevertebral|
|C)||prevertebral and collateral|
|D)||paravertebral and terminal|
Every spinal nerve receives a ____________ ramus that carries postganglionic axons from a ganglion of the sympathetic trunk.
Preganglionic axons enter the nearby sympathetic trunk ganglia by way of
Organs in the thoracic cavity, such as the heart and lungs, are innervated by
|A)||thoracic spinal nerves|
|B)||postganglionic sympathetic nerves|
|C)||thoracic splanchnic nerves|
|D)||all of the above|
Sympathetic preganglionic axons that do not synapse in a sympathetic trunk ganglion form
|C)||gray rami communicantes|
Postganglionic axons from the prevertebral ganglia innervate which of the following?
|A)||glands and smooth muscle tissue in organs of the head and neck|
|B)||the heart, lungs, and other thoracic viscera|
|C)||most of the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity|
|D)||all of the above|
Sympathetic pathways include all of the following except the
|A)||spinal nerve pathway|
|B)||anterior pituitary pathway|
|C)||adrenal medulla pathway|
|D)||postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway|
During a crisis, the rapid stimulation of many sympathetic neurons produces the phenomenon called
In autonomic plexuses, sympathetic ____________ axons mingle (but do not synapse or interact) with parasympathetic ____________ axons.
Which neurotransmitter is released by all preganglionic axons?
Which neurotransmitter is released by most sympathetic postganglionic axons?
Axons that release norepinephrine onto their effectors are called
Which structure secretes hormones that potentiate (prolong) the effects of sympathetic stimulation?
Organs with both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve supply are said to have
In organs innervated by postganglionic axons from both ANS divisions, the actions of the two typically have what kind of effects?
The integration and command center for autonomic functions is the