Serum is the fraction of plasma remaining after the removal of
|A)||nutrients and wastes|
|B)||electrolytes and respiratory gases|
|D)||both a and b|
Salts and protein molecules in blood help prevent excess fluid loss from the plasma by maintaining the proper ____________; this is necessary because water and solutes must be able to "leak" across capillary walls to complete another major function of blood, ____________.
|A)||osmotic balance; transportation|
|B)||filtration rate; thermoregulation|
|C)||water tension; chemoregulation|
|D)||hydrostatic pressure; immune protection|
All types of blood cells arise indirectly from
|A)||myeloid stem cells|
|B)||lymphatic stem cells|
Given that the liver synthesizes most of the plasma proteins, severe liver disorders can be expected to cause
|A)||decreased osmotic pressure of the blood plasma|
|B)||less efficient transport of iron ions and lipids|
|C)||diminished clotting ability|
|D)||all of the above|
Myeloid stem cells give rise to three separate lineages of ____________ that differentiate into erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and ____________.
|A)||lymphoid stem cells; lymphocytes and NK cells|
|B)||progenitor cells; granulocytes and monocytes|
|D)||pluripotent cells; agranulocytes|
Immature erythrocytes that still have nuclei and are actively synthesizing hemoglobin are called
As the final step in the maturation process, ____________ lose their remaining ribosomes to become erythrocytes.
Athletes temporarily increase their hematocrit without increasing oxygen-carrying capacity whenever they
|A)||dope their blood|
|B)||train at high altitudes|
|D)||all of the above|
The heme groups from old erythrocytes are stripped of their iron and eventually recycled into a substance that helps to
|A)||transport oxygen in the interstitial fluid|
|B)||emulsify fats in the digestive tract|
|C)||regulate pH in the blood plasma|
|D)||produce new erythrocytes in the red bone marrow|
How can Rh antibodies, the very molecules that cause hemolytic disease of the newborn, prevent this disease when administered to an Rh negative woman who is pregnant with an Rh positive fetus?
|A)||the antibodies cross the placenta early in development and desensitize the fetus's blood|
|B)||presence of the antibodies transforms the fetus into an Rh negative individual|
|C)||the antibodies destroy any Rh antigens from the fetus before the mother is sensitized|
|D)||none of the above; an Rh negative woman cannot have an Rh positive child|
The types of ____________ are named for their specific affinities to chemical stains.
The most abundant type of circulating leukocyte, which has a multilobed nucleus and cytoplasm packed with pale-staining granules, is the
Which leukocyte lacks specific granules, is up to three times the diameter of an erythrocyte, and has a large kidney-shaped or C-shaped nucleus?
An elevated count of neutrophils in the blood would most likely indicate
|A)||an acute viral infection|
|B)||a parasitic infection|
|C)||a chronic bacterial infection|
|D)||an allergic reaction|
Which two types of cells release histamine (to dilate blood vessels) and heparin (to inhibit clotting)?
|A)||basophils and eosinophils|
|B)||neutrophils and lymphocytes|
|C)||monocytes and macrophages|
|D)||mast cells and basophils|
During an attack of hay fever (or allergic rhinitis), a person could expect to have a higher than normal percentage of circulating
The cells that produce the smallest formed elements of the blood are called
Which sequence correctly lists formed elements in order of increasing abundance in typical blood?
|A)||neutrophils, platelets, eosinophils|
|B)||leukocytes, platelets, erythrocytes|
|C)||platelets, leukocytes, erythrocytes|
|D)||basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes|
Plasma cells (one type of specialized lymphocyte) and eosinophils work at opposite ends of specific immune responses involving proteins known as
Filled to capacity after a trip through the capillaries of the lungs, a normal erythrocyte would contain
|A)||up to four molecules of oxygen|
|B)||four atoms of oxygen per hemoglobin molecule|
|C)||over a billion molecules of oxygen|
|D)||over a billion molecules of carbon dioxide|
A general shortage of the only formed elements that retain all of their organelles is called
When a leukocyte squeezes between endothelial cells in pursuit of pathogens, its ____________ has triggered its ____________.
|A)||random movement; entrapment|
It would generally be a mistake for a physician to treat iron deficiency anemia simply by giving the patient iron supplements because
|A)||iron deficiency anemia transforms into pernicious anemia if not treated aggressively|
|B)||most iron deficiency anemias result from chronic blood loss, not dietary deficiency|
|C)||all forms of anemia should be investigated as symptoms of precancerous conditions|
|D)||all of the above|
Ironically, the oxygen deprivation of vital tissues (such as heart attacks or strokes) that can result from ____________ is caused by an excess of oxygen carriers in the blood.
Persons with Rh ____________ blood never exhibit Rh ____________.
|C)||positive; surface antigens|