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Simple Multiple Choice
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What ensures the unidirectional flow of blood through both the heart and the blood vessels?
A)constant pressure generated by the heart contractions
B)valves within the heart that prevent backflow of blood
C)squeezing action of smooth muscle tissue in arterial walls
D)continuous osmotic outflow of plasma from capillaries
The ____________ carries blood throughout the body; the ____________ carries blood only to and from the lungs.
A)systemic circuit; pulmonary circuit
B)pulmonary circuit; systemic circuit
C)venous circulation; arterial circulation
D)arterial circulation; venous circulation
What are the three layers of the heart wall, in order from external to internal?
A)pericardium, myocardium, epicardium
B)endocardium, myocardium, pericardium
C)myocardium, endocardium, epicardium
D)epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
The epicardium is also called the
A)fibrous pericardium
B)serous pericardium
C)visceral layer of the serous pericardium
D)parietal layer of the serous pericardium
The myocardium is composed of
A)an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer
B)cardiac muscle tissue
C)a simple squamous epithelium and a layer of areolar connective tissue
D)both b and c
In which of the following ways does cardiac muscle tissue differ from skeletal muscle tissue?
A)cardiac muscle fibers are relatively short and branched or bifurcated
B)neighboring cardiac muscle fibers are connected by intercalated discs
C)each cardiac muscle cell has only one or two centrally located nuclei
D)all of the above
The fibrous skeleton of the heart does not
A)separate the atria and ventricles
B)anchor and stabilize the heart valves
C)promote random impulse conduction throughout the heart wall
D)provide a rigid framework for the attachment of cardiac muscle tissue
The heart is rotated such that the ____________ are located more anteriorly, while the other chambers are located more posteriorly.
A)right atrium and ventricle
B)left atrium and ventricle
C)right and left atria
D)right and left ventricles
Externally, the atria and ventricles are separated by a relatively deep groove called the
A)interventricular sulcus
B)coronary sulcus
C)interatrial sulcus
D)atrioventricular septum
The inferior, conical end of the heart is called the
B)inferior angle
D)right ventricle
What are the prominent ridges on the internal surfaces of the auricles and the anterior atrial walls?
A)pectinate muscles
B)papillary muscles
C)trabeculae carneae
D)chordae tendineae
As their name implies, the heart chambers that receive blood returning through both circulatory circuits are called
All of the following are true of the left ventricle except
A)wall is typically 3 times thicker than that of right ventricle
B)inner wall contains prominent trabeculae carneae and papillary muscles
C)aortic semilunar valve at superior end separates it from the aorta
D)receives deoxygenated venous blood from the left atrium
Blood from the systemic circuit returns directly into which heart chamber?
A)right atrium
B)left atrium
C)right auricle
D)left auricle
The pulmonary trunk carries blood from which heart chamber into the pulmonary circuit?
A)left atrium
B)right atrium
C)left ventricle
D)right ventricle
Oxygenated blood returning from the lungs enters the left atrium through
A)the pulmonary arteries
B)the pulmonary veins
C)the coronary sinus
D)all of the above
From the right atrium, blood passes through the right AV (tricuspid) valve into the
A)pulmonary trunk
B)left atrium
C)right ventricle
D)left ventricle
When closed, the left atrioventricular valve prevents backflow of blood into the
A)left ventricle
B)left atrium
C)right atrium
D)right ventricle
Which structures prevent the AV valves from everting and flipping into the atria when the ventricles contract?
A)chordae tendineae and pectinate muscles
B)chordae tendineae and papillary muscles
C)conus arteriosus and interventricular septum
D)foramen ovale and fossa ovalis
As the ventricles start to contract, the first heart sound ("lubb") signifies the
A)opening of all four heart valves
B)closing of all four heart valves
C)closing of the semilunar valves
D)closing of the AV valves
Specialized cardiac muscle fibers that transmit muscle impulses to the contractile muscle cells of the myocardium are an important part of the heart's
A)fibrous skeleton
B)valvular apparatus
C)conduction system
D)all of the above
The cardiac muscle fibers of the ____________ act as the pacemaker, the rhythmic center that initiates the heartbeat.
A)AV node
B)sinoatrial node
C)atrioventricular bundle
D)ventricular myocardium
The inclusive period of time from the beginning of one heartbeat to the next is called
C)a conduction pattern
D)a cardiac cycle
Regardless of the heart chamber, contraction is called ____________ and relaxation, ____________.
A)diastole, systole
B)systole, diastole
C)fibrillation, defibrillation
D)defibrillation, fibrillation
The QRS complex of a typical electrocardiogram (ECG) tracing denotes the beginning of
A)depolarization of the atria
B)repolarization of the atria
C)depolarization of the ventricles
D)repolarization of the ventricles
An ECG produces a composite tracing of all ____________ generated by myocardial cells.
A)muscle impulses
B)nerve impulses
C)muscle contractions
D)metabolic activity
The right coronary artery typically branches into which two vessels?
A)right marginal artery and posterior interventricular artery
B)right marginal artery and anterior interventricular artery
C)circumflex artery and posterior interventricular artery
D)circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery
Sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system that innervate the heart are collectively called the
A)bundle of His
B)cardiac nerves
C)coronary plexus
D)Purkinje fibers
Autonomic innervation of the heart does which of the following?
A)initiates heartbeat at beginning of each cardiac cycle
B)increases heart rate and force of contractions
C)decreases heart rate without changing force of contractions
D)both b and c
After birth, the foramen ovale of the fetal heart is replaced by a small depression in the interatrial septum called the
A)ligamentum arteriosum
B)fossa ovalis
C)conus cordis
D)truncus arteriosus

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