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Difficult Multiple Choice
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1
The respiratory system assists the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems in
A)regulating blood volume
B)regulating blood pressure
C)controlling body fluid pH
D)all of the above
2
Which pair does not correctly match a respiratory passageway with its primary opening(s) for receiving inhaled air?
A)vestibule; external nares
B)nasopharynx; choanae
C)oropharynx; fauces
D)trachea; rima glottidis
3
Of the following, which structure is a component of both the lower respiratory tract and the conducting portion of the respiratory system?
A)oropharynx
B)laryngopharynx
C)larynx
D)alveolar duct
4
Which one of the following does not accurately characterize the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract?
A)it is mostly pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells
B)cilia in the larger passageways sweep trapped debris toward the pharynx, where it is swallowed
C)it changes from simple columnar to simple cuboidal epithelium within progressively smaller bronchioles
D)goblet cells and mucous glands in the lamina propria secrete a watery, lubricating fluid
5
In which pair is each structure or region lined with two different kinds of epithelia (the same two)?
A)pharynx and larynx
B)nasopharynx and oropharynx
C)oropharynx and laryngopharynx
D)trachea and bronchi
6
Which structure consists of a narrow opening with ligamentous lateral walls that both guard the passage into the lower respiratory tract and vibrate to produce sound?
A)epiglottis
B)glottis
C)larynx
D)trachea
7
The lining of the trachea consists of a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and an underlying lamina propria; together, these constitute the
A)serosa
B)mucosa
C)submucosa
D)trachealis
8
Which paranasal sinuses are located deepest within the skull, or farthest posterior to the face?
A)ethmoidal
B)frontal
C)sphenoid
D)maxillary
9
Which statement about the respiratory tract is false?
A)the upper respiratory tract includes components of both functional portions
B)stratified epithelia occur only in parts of the tract shared by another system
C)the trachea is part of the lower respiratory tract but not of the bronchial tree
D)the inferior end of the bronchial tree is also the end of the conducting portion
10
Even if all the defenses in the conducting portion of the respiratory tract fail, ____________ may still destroy pathogens before they can enter the body fluids.
A)macrophages in the pulmonary lymph nodes
B)NK cells in the elastic tissues of the lungs
C)cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
D)alveolar macrophages
11
An important function of the fluid in the pleural cavity is to
A)provide a medium for the exchange of respiratory gases
B)reduce friction between the visceral and parietal pleurae
C)provide lubrication for movements of the diaphragm
D)permit the exchange of electrolytes during respiration
12
Branches or tributaries of which vessels carry oxygenated blood through the tissues of the lungs?
A)pulmonary and bronchial veins
B)pulmonary and bronchial arteries
C)pulmonary veins and bronchial arteries
D)pulmonary arteries and bronchial veins
13
Autonomic stimulation via the vagus nerves causes what response within the lungs?
A)deeper inhalation
B)forced exhalation
C)bronchodilation
D)bronchoconstriction
14
Impulses transmitted by the ____________ nerves cause the smooth muscle in the walls of bronchioles to ____________.
A)pulmonary; contract
B)vagus; relax
C)cardiac; relax
D)thoracic; contract
15
In the control of respiration by the regulatory centers of the brain, what stimulates activity in the dorsal respiratory group?
A)output from the apneustic center or VRG
B)any inhibition of the respiratory center
C)activation of the pneumotaxic center
D)all of the above
16
Arrange the following to reflect the path of airflow that results from activation of the VRG (some structures are omitted): (1) terminal bronchiole (2) segmental bronchus (3) primary bronchus (4) alveolar duct (5) trachea
A)1, 4, 3, 2, 5
B)5, 2, 3, 4, 1
C)4, 1, 2, 3, 5
D)5, 3, 2, 1, 4
17
According to Boyle's law, intrapulmonary pressure should ____________ when the diaphragm or external intercostal muscles contract.
A)increase
B)decrease
C)remain constant
D)equal atmospheric pressure
18
In prematurely born infants, hyaline membrane disease is associated with inadequate production of ____________ by ____________ cells.
A)lysozyme; mucous gland
B)mucin; goblet
C)glycoproteins; alveolar type I
D)surfactant; alveolar type II
19
Babies that sleep on their stomachs are now known to be at greater risk of
A)asphyxiation
B)SIDS (crib death)
C)developmental delays
D)all of the above
20
Ultimately, the harmful effects of cystic fibrosis are attributable to ____________, caused by a defective gene.
A)excessive, dilute mucus in the lungs
B)hyposecretion of pancreatic enzymes
C)hypersecretion of sodium chloride
D)osmotic imbalance in gland cells
21
Which of the following result from the presence of free air in the pleural cavity?
A)pneumothorax and atelectasis
B)hydrothorax and hemothorax
C)empyema and emphysema
D)all of the above
22
Of the following, which condition most directly involves structures in the respiratory portion of the respiratory tract?
A)epistaxis
B)asthma
C)emphysema
D)bronchitis
23
Smoking is a very dangerous habit because
A)it causes emphysema and significantly increases the risk and severity of atherosclerosis
B)it is directly implicated in cancers of the lung, esophagus, stomach, and urinary bladder
C)second-hand smoke may trigger bronchitis, ear infections, and asthma in children
D)all of the above
24
Which type of lung cancer has histological ties to the nervous and endocrine systems and tends to metastasize very early?
A)squamous cell carcinoma
B)adenocarcinoma
C)small-cell carcinoma
D)large-cell carcinoma
25
Asthma is most similar to ____________ localized in the bronchi and bronchioles.
A)an immune response
B)a pulmonary embolism
C)acute bronchitis
D)pneumonia







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