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Simple Multiple Choice
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Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?
A)provide an area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood
B)transport air to and from the cells and tissues throughout the body
C)condition gases before they reach the exchange surfaces of the lungs
D)defend respiratory system and other tissues against inhaled bacteria
Which selection includes only upper respiratory tract components?
A)nose, mouth, pharynx, and larynx
B)larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
C)bronchi, respiratory bronchioles, and alveoli
D)nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx
The lower respiratory tract extends from the ____________ to the ____________, inclusive.
A)larynx; alveoli
B)pharynx; lungs
C)trachea; alveoli
D)pharynx; alveolar sacs
The functional division of the respiratory system that transports air (as opposed to exchanging gases with the blood) is called the
A)upper respiratory tract
B)lower respiratory tract
C)respiratory portion
D)conducting portion
Air filtration and conditioning, olfaction, and sound resonance are all functions of the
A)oral cavity
B)nasal cavity
Which term describes the part of the nasal cavity contained within the flexible tissues of the external nose?
A)external nares
B)dorsum nasi
What composes the nasal septum?
A)the vomer
B)perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
C)septal cartilage
D)all of the above
The passages that conduct air from the vestibule to the internal nares are the
A)superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae
B)superior, middle, and inferior meatuses
C)superior, middle, and inferior turbinates
D)hard palate, soft palate, and nasopharynx
Regions of the pharynx include which of the following?
D)all of the above
Which selection correctly pairs a pharyngeal region with its lining?
A)nasopharynx; nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
B)oropharynx; nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
C)laryngopharynx; pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
D)none of the above
A short, somewhat cylindrical airway with cartilaginous walls stabilized by ligaments and muscles best describes which of the following?
Cartilages of the larynx include all of the following except the
A)arytenoid cartilages and epiglottis
B)lateral cartilages and alar cartilages
C)thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage
D)corniculate and cuneiform cartilages
The spoon-shaped ____________, composed mostly of elastic cartilage, closes over the laryngeal opening when a person swallows.
C)aryepiglottic fold
D)laryngeal prominence
The posterior wall of the trachea consists of
A)tracheal cartilages and anular ligaments
B)the trachealis muscle and an elastic membrane
C)a mucosa and a submucosal layer
D)both b and c
The carina of the trachea is an internal ridge formed by
A)two fused anular ligaments
B)an infolding of the trachealis muscle
C)the inferiormost tracheal cartilage
D)both a and b
Compared with the left primary bronchus, the right primary bronchus is
C)more horizontally oriented
D)all of the above
Each primary bronchus divides to form secondary bronchi, which in turn branch to form
A)lobar bronchi
B)segmental bronchi
C)ten tertiary bronchi in the left lung and eight in the right
D)numerous bronchioles
All of the lung tissue supplied by a single tertiary bronchus is called a
B)tertiary lobule
C)pulmonary lobule
D)bronchopulmonary segment
The walls of which parts of the bronchial tree contain no cartilage and are instead dominated by smooth muscle tissue?
A)primary bronchi
B)secondary bronchi
C)tertiary bronchi
D)terminal bronchioles
Which of the following is false regarding the respiratory membrane?
A)it is the only barrier between the blood and the inhaled gases within each alveolus
B)basement membranes of alveolar type I cells and their adjacent capillaries are fused
C)oxygen cannot diffuse through the membrane and so must be actively transported
D)carbon dioxide diffuses across the membrane from the blood into the alveolar lumen
On each side of the chest, the ____________ pleura lines the internal thoracic wall, while the ____________ pleura tightly covers the lung.
A)thoracic; pulmonary
B)parietal; visceral
C)visceral; parietal
D)fibrous; serous
In normal, unforced breathing, ____________ involves muscular contractions while ____________ requires no active muscular effort.
A)inhalation, exhalation
B)exhalation, inhalation
C)expiration, inspiration
D)eupnea, hyperpnea
Which muscles of respiration are used during normal quiet breathing?
A)rectus abdominis and internal obliques
B)scalenes and internal intercostals
C)external intercostals and diaphragm
D)transversus abdominis and serratus anterior
Which muscles assist exhalation by depressing the ribs?
A)external intercostals, scalenes, and serratus posterior superior
B)internal intercostals, transversus thoracis, and serratus posterior inferior
C)pectoralis minor, sternocleidomastoid, and serratus anterior
D)all of the above
All of the following are true of the fetal respiratory system except
A)the lungs receive little blood because the pulmonary vessels are collapsed
B)alveolar type II cells start secreting pulmonary surfactant around week 28
C)the epithelial linings of alveoli are initially too thick for respiration
D)the lungs and conducting passageways contain small amounts of air
Sympathetic and parasympathetic axons that surround the primary bronchi and enter the lungs at the hilum compose the
A)pleural respiratory center
B)parabronchial network
C)pulmonary plexus
D)asthmatic reflex pathway
Which pair does not correctly match a regulatory respiratory center with its location?
A)respiratory center, medulla oblongata
B)inspiratory center, midbrain
C)apneustic center, pons
D)pneumotaxic center, pons
Which regulatory center of the brain establishes the rate and depth of both inspiration and expiration?
A)respiratory center
B)dorsal respiratory group
C)ventral respiratory group
D)pneumotaxic center
Inspiration is inhibited in two ways by the
A)dorsal respiratory group
B)ventral respiratory
C)apneustic center
D)pneumotaxic center
The elastic tissues in the lungs and thoracic cavity wall deteriorate with advancing age, resulting in
A)decreased flexibility of the costal cartilages
B)less efficient gas exchange within the lungs
C)an increased incidence and severity of emphysema
D)a buildup of pollutants in the lymph nodes and lungs

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