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Simple Multiple Choice
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1
Which of the following is not a function of the urinary system?
A)removal of waste products from the bloodstream
B)storage and excretion of urine
C)regulation of leukocyte and platelet production
D)regulation of blood volume and, indirectly, blood pressure
2
All of the following structures are components of the urinary system except
A)kidneys
B)ureters
C)urethra
D)gallbladder
3
Which sequence correctly traces the path of urine after it leaves the kidneys?
A)ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
B)urinary bladder, ureters, urethra
C)urethra, urinary bladder, ureters
D)urinary bladder, urethra, ureters
4
What structure rests on the superior pole of each kidney?
A)spleen
B)transverse colon
C)adrenal gland
D)duodenum
5
The four tissue layers surrounding and supporting the kidneys are the
A)tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa, and adventitia
B)fibrous capsule, perinephric fat, renal fascia, and paranephric fat
C)fibrous capsule, adipose capsule, renal capsule, and suspensory ligaments
D)major calyces, minor calyces, renal fascia, and renal cortex
6
The outer layer of the kidney, just internal to the fibrous capsule, is the renal
A)medulla
B)column
C)pelvis
D)cortex
7
In a typical adult kidney, the renal ____________ is subdivided into 8 to 15 distinct conical or triangular structures known as renal ____________.
A)cortex; papillae
B)medulla; pyramids
C)medulla; columns
D)cortex; lobes
8
Which term describes the tip of a renal pyramid that projects toward the renal sinus?
A)minor calyx
B)major calyx
C)renal papilla
D)renal column
9
Blood vessels, nerves, and the ureter connect to the kidney at a prominent medial indentation known as the
A)hilum
B)mediastinum
C)renal sinus
D)renal pelvis
10
What is the functional filtration unit in the kidney?
A)renal tubule
B)renal corpuscle
C)nephron
D)glomerulus
11
Components of a nephron include
A)a renal corpuscle
B)proximal and distal convoluted tubules
C)a nephron loop
D)all of the above
12
Components of a renal corpuscle include
A)a glomerulus and glomerular capsule
B)visceral and parietal layers of a renal capsule
C)a renal tubule
D)all of the above
13
From the renal artery, blood flows through which sequence of arteries?
A)segmental, interlobular, interlobar, arcuate
B)interlobar, interlobular, arcuate, segmental
C)arcuate, segmental, interlobular, interlobar
D)segmental, interlobar, arcuate, interlobular
14
In various nephrons, ____________ form a network around the convoluted tubules; surrounding the nephron loop are capillaries called the ____________.
A)vasa recta; peritubular capillaries
B)peritubular capillaries; interlobular capillaries
C)peritubular capillaries; vasa recta
D)vasa recta; interlobular capillaries
15
Nephrons with nephron loops that barely penetrate the renal medulla are called
A)nonfunctional nephrons
B)dystrophic nephrons
C)cortical nephrons
D)juxtamedullary nephrons
16
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a juxtamedullary nephron?
A)the entire nephron is located in the superficial cortex of the kidney
B)the renal corpuscle comprises a glomerulus and a glomerular capsule
C)blood arrives at the glomerular capillaries via an afferent arteriole
D)the proximal convoluted tubule leads into a long nephron loop
17
Glomerular capillaries are characterized by all of the following except
A)blood under relatively high pressure, from afferent arterioles
B)an endothelium with an unusually thin basement membrane
C)a fenestrated endothelium that allows materials to be filtered
D)an epithelial covering of podocytes with pedicels and filtration slits
18
Arrange the following to trace the path of filtrate through a renal tubule: (1) proximal convoluted tubule (2) distal convoluted tubule (3) ascending limb of nephron loop (4) descending limb of nephron loop
A)1, 2, 3, 4
B)2, 3, 4, 1
C)1, 4, 3, 2
D)3, 2, 1, 4
19
The three interrelated processes of urine formation are
A)filtration, secretion, and excretion
B)secretion, reabsorption, and micturition
C)excretion, storage, and micturition
D)filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
20
From which part of the renal tubule are 60-65% of the water and virtually all nutrients, electrolytes, and plasma proteins reabsorbed into the blood?
A)proximal convoluted tubule
B)distal convoluted tubule
C)ascending limb of nephron loop
D)descending limb of nephron loop
21
Which part of the renal tubule is lined throughout its length by a simple cuboidal epithelium with sparse, short microvilli?
A)proximal convoluted tubule
B)distal convoluted tubule
C)ascending limb of nephron loop
D)descending limb of nephron loop
22
Hydrogen and potassium ions are secreted into the tubular fluid in the
A)renal corpuscle
B)proximal convoluted tubule
C)nephron loop
D)distal convoluted tubule
23
Which sequence correctly traces the flow of tubular fluid after it leaves the nephrons?
A)papillary ducts, collecting tubules, collecting ducts
B)collecting tubules, collecting ducts, papillary ducts
C)papillary ducts, collecting ducts, collecting tubules
D)collecting ducts, collecting tubules, papillary ducts
24
Innervation of the kidneys functions to
A)regulate glomerular blood flow and filtrate formation
B)stimulate the release of renin by juxtaglomerular cells
C)refer pain to the T10-T12 dermatomes via the sympathetic pathway
D)all of the above
25
Which type of epithelium lines the ureters and urinary bladder?
A)simple cuboidal
B)simple columnar
C)transitional
D)stratified squamous
26
Each ureter originates at the renal ____________ as it exits the hilum of its respective kidney.
A)sinus
B)pelvis
C)papilla
D)pyramid
27
The hollow, muscular organ that temporarily stores urine is the
A)trigone
B)detrusor
C)urachus
D)urinary bladder
28
Most of the mucosa of the urinary bladder is thrown into folds called ____________ that allow for extreme distension.
A)trigones
B)plicae
C)rugae
D)fimbriae
29
Which sequence correctly traces the flow of urine after it leaves the urinary bladder in a male?
A)prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, spongy urethra
B)membranous urethra, prostatic urethra, spongy urethra
C)ureter, membranous urethra, prostatic urethra, spongy urethra
D)renal pelvis, ureter, prostatic urethra, penile urethra
30
Which one of the following doesnot characterize the micturition reflex?
A)distension of bladder stimulates stretch receptors in bladder wall
B)impulses from stretch receptors signal the micturition center
C)parasympathetic stimulation causes detrusor muscle to contract
D)internal urethral sphincter relaxes under conscious, voluntary control







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