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Difficult Multiple Choice
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1
Embryogenesis refers to the same period of time as
A)the prenatal period
B)the gestation period
C)pregnancy
D)all of the above
2
All of the following accurately describe aspects of fertilization except
A)sperm cells first undergo capacitation in the female reproductive tract
B)egg cells must be fully mature before they can be ovulated or fertilized
C)to remain viable, an egg must be fertilized within 24 hours of ovulation
D)sperm cells typically encounter the egg in the ampulla of the uterine tube
3
Which stage of meiosis lasts much longer in females than in males?
A)Prophase I
B)Anaphase I
C)Metaphase II
D)Telophase II
4
All of the following occur during spermiogenesis except
A)spermatids lose much of their cytoplasm and grow a flagellum
B)mature sperm cells, or spermatozoa, are formed
C)sperm become completely ready to fertilize an egg cell
D)neither b nor c occurs during spermiogenesis
5
Under normal conditions, how many of the four spermatozoa produced from each spermatocyte contain a Y chromosome?
A)two
B)four
C)one
D)the number varies randomly
6
Which of the following must occur between the first phase of fertilization and zygote formation?
A)the sperm undergoes capacitation
B)the egg completes meiosis II
C)the first polar body forms
D)all of the above
7
Crossing over is the process by which
A)homologous chromosomes trade parts during meiosis
B)genes can be shuffled even before fertilization occurs
C)one chromosome can combine genes from both parents
D)all of the above
8
Which one of the following phrases does not accurately describe the blastodisc?
A)forms during the second week of development
B)is composed of two layers of cuboidal germ cells
C)contains a hypoblast layer and an epiblast layer
D)gives rise to the embryo, amnion, and yolk sac
9
The second week of development can be characterized as the "period of twos" because
A)a two-layered germinal disc forms, and from it, two extraembryonic cavities
B)the placenta begins to develop from two components that merge
C)both of the above
D)neither a nor b is true
10
The placenta provides services for the fetus that will eventually be performed by which of the following organ systems?
A)digestive
B)respiratory
C)urinary
D)all of the above
11
Although the bilaminar germinal disc contains two layers of cells, only the ____________ gives rise to the three layers of the trilaminar embryo.
A)epiblast
B)hypoblast
C)cytotrophoblast
D)syncytiotrophoblast
12
The pre-embryo arrives in the uterine cavity as a ____________, but it is a ____________ by the time it begins implantation.
A)zygote; morula
B)morula; blastocyst
C)morula; gastrula
D)blastocyst; gastrula
13
In the blastocyst, the fluid-filled chamber that separates the bilaminar germinal disc from the trophoblast is the
A)blastocoel
B)amniotic cavity
C)chorionic cavity
D)yolk sac
14
The invagination or migration of cells from the epiblast into the space between it and the hypoblast marks the beginning of
A)cleavage
B)organogenesis
C)gastrulation
D)neurulation
15
All three primary germ layers develop from the same cellular layer in the blastodisc as which extraembryonic membrane?
A)chorion
B)yolk sac
C)trophoblast
D)amnion
16
Although neurulation primarily involves changes in ectoderm, it could not occur without inductive interaction between
A)mesoderm and endoderm
B)endoderm and ectoderm
C)ectoderm and mesoderm
D)both a and b
17
The umbilical cord comprises which of the following structures?
A)connecting stalk, umbilical vessels, and allantois
B)chorionic villi and maternal blood vessels
C)stratum basalis and stratum functionalis
D)all of the above
18
Fetal metabolic wastes are eliminated by transfer to the
A)amniotic fluid
B)maternal blood
C)yolk sac
D)all of the above
19
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) from the syncytiotrophoblast serves to
A)prevent menstruation that would end the pregnancy
B)allow early detection of pregnancy in modern diagnostic tests
C)both a and b
D)neither a nor b
20
Which of the following would be the most likely consequence of a genetic defect that prevented the placenta from producing hormones?
A)spontaneous abortion within the first week of pregnancy
B)loss of the fetus because of inadequate oxygen supply
C)severely underweight birth after a normal gestation period
D)miscarriage as soon as the corpus luteum ceases to function
21
Amniocentesis is most often performed during which month of pregnancy?
A)third
B)fourth
C)fifth
D)sixth
22
Fetal alcohol syndrome and congenital syphilis share what etiological aspect?
A)both result from alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy
B)both are exacerbated by smoking or drug use during pregnancy
C)both are acquired from the mother across the placental barrier
D)all of the above
23
Teratogens would be most likely to cause which of the following types of congenital anomalies?
A)malformations
B)disruptions
C)deformations
D)all of the above
24
Cellular differentiation causes a decrease in
A)specialization
B)totipotency
C)growth
D)development
25
What must actually rupture when the "water breaks" during labor?
A)chorion
B)amnion
C)endometrium
D)all of the above







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