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Simple Multiple Choice
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1
Which epidermal layer is found in thick skin only?
A)stratum basale
B)stratum spinosum
C)stratum lucidum
D)stratum corneum
2
From the basement membrane outward, the strata of the epidermis are
A)corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
B)basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum
C)lucidum, basale, granulosum, corneum
D)granulosum, spinosum, basale, corneum
3
Which of the following are specialized cells found in the deeper layers of the epidermis?
A)tactile cells
B)epidermal dendritic cells
C)melanocytes
D)all of the above
4
What are the most abundant cells found in the epidermis?
A)melanocytes
B)Merkel cells
C)keratinocytes
D)Langerhans cells
5
The epidermis varies within a single individual in which of the following aspects?
A)thickness, coloration, and skin markings
B)innervation and blood supply
C)both a and b
D)neither a nor b
6
The terms thick and thin skin refer to the relative thickness of the
A)entire integument
B)cutaneous and subcutaneous layers
C)epidermis only
D)dermis only
7
Skin color differences among both individuals and races are mostly the result of
A)different levels of melanocyte activity
B)different colors of melanin
C)different numbers of melanocytes
D)both a and b
8
Which of the following makes no significant contribution to skin color?
A)hemoglobin
B)keratin
C)melanin
D)carotene
9
Dermal structures that originate from the invagination of the epidermis include
A)the accessory organs of the integument
B)sweat and sebaceous glands, nails, and hair
C)the integumentary appendages
D)all of the above
10
Which of the following is not a significant possible health benefit of carotene?
A)protects the skin from harmful radiation in sunlight
B)helps maintain normal vision when converted into vitamin A
C)helps eliminate potentially dangerous molecules produced by metabolism
D)may boost the number and activity of immune cells
11
Which epidermal pigment protects nuclear DNA by absorbing potentially damaging ultraviolet radiation?
A)hemoglobin
B)melanin
C)carotene
D)keratin
12
Limited exposure to ultraviolet radiation is useful because it
A)protects against most types of skin cancer
B)reduces swelling in underlying connective tissues
C)helps epidermal cells convert a steroid to vitamin D3
D)stimulates an increase in melanocyte production
13
The two major regions of the dermis are the superficial ____________ layer and the deeper ____________ layer.
A)collagenous; elastic
B)papillary; reticular
C)reticular; papillary
D)areolar; adipose
14
The dermal papillae interlock with deep projections of the epidermis called
A)epidermal ridges
B)the papillary layer
C)desmosomes
D)tight junctions
15
Stretch marks, or striae, are the result of
A)excessive stretching of the epidermis
B)torn collagen fibers in the dermis
C)an overabundance of elastic fibers
D)all of the above
16
Which statement about the subcutaneous layer is false?
A)it consists of areolar connective tissue and adipose connective tissue
B)it stabilizes the position of the skin and binds it to the underlying tissues
C)corresponding to larger body size, it is normally thicker in men than in women
D)also called the hypodermis or superficial fascia, it is not part of the integument
17
Both hair and nails are composed mainly of dead cells packed with
A)melanin
B)collagen
C)carotene
D)keratin
18
Another name for a hair is
A)an onychium
B)a pilus
C)a nevus
D)a comedo
19
All of the following are important functions of human hair except
A)protecting the scalp from sunburn and injury
B)preventing entry of foreign particles into the eyes, ears, and nose
C)providing insulation for the overall body surface
D)assisting in the dispersal of pheromones
20
The lunula, eponychium, and hyponychium are all structures associated with a
A)sweat gland
B)nail
C)hair
D)hair follicle
21
The connective tissue root sheath and epithelial root sheath are both components of the
A)hair follicle
B)hair root
C)hair bulb
D)hair papilla
22
The relatively coarse, pigmented hair of the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes is
A)terminal hair
B)vellus hair
C)lanugo
D)none of the above
23
Variations in hair color may result from
A)environmental and hormonal factors
B)genetic differences in the structure of melanin
C)an age-related decrease in pigment production
D)all of the above
24
Hairs in the scalp normally grow
A)indefinitely, stopping only if the follicle is destroyed
B)about one-third of a millimeter per day for 2 to 5 years
C)to a maximum length of 20 inches before shedding
D)sporadically, with the rate increasing if the hair is cut
25
Which term describes the skin's normal release of water vapor without noticeable sweat?
A)sublimation
B)dehydration
C)insensible perspiration
D)sensible perspiration
26
Which integumentary exocrine glands are distributed over most of the body surface?
A)sudoriferous and ceruminous glands
B)lactiferous and apocrine sweat glands
C)sebaceous and merocrine sweat glands
D)all of the above
27
Apocrine sweat glands occur in all of the following locations except
A)the areola
B)the palms
C)the axillae
D)the groin
28
Which type of gland secretes a lipid material that coats the epidermis and hair shafts to provide lubrication and inhibit bacterial growth?
A)sebaceous
B)sudoriferous
C)eccrine
D)apocrine
29
By producing sensible perspiration, merocrine sweat glands assist in
A)regulating body temperature through evaporation
B)ridding the body of excess water and electrolytes
C)protecting against environmental hazards
D)all of the above
30
The skin of older persons is more easily damaged and slower to heal because
A)collagen fibers accumulate through time and crowd out protective cells
B)epidermal dendritic cells proliferate, interfering with the immune response
C)the epidermis thins as epidermal stem cells decline in number and activity
D)all of the above







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