Which of the following events could be a result of damage to the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system?
|A)||decreased secretion of ADH (vasopressin)|
|B)||decreased secretion of oxytocin|
|C)||decreased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone|
|D)||decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone|
Secretion of many anterior pituitary hormones is controlled by other hormones from the
Anterior pituitary cells called mammotropes (lactotropes) secrete
|B)||follicle stimulating hormone|
Which of the following consists of nerve tissue, and is a down growth from the hypothalamus?
From its point of secretion until it reaches its target cells, TRH is found in or passes through which structures?
|A)||hypothalamus, hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, posterior pituitary|
|B)||hypothalamus, hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels, anterior pituitary|
|C)||anterior pituitary, vascular system, thyroid gland|
|D)||thyroid gland, vascular system, target organs and tissues|
The sella turcica is the location of which gland?
The hormone ADH is produced by cells whose bodies are in the ____, but it is actually released or secreted in the _____.
|A)||anterior pituitary; posterior pituitary|
|B)||hypothalamus; anterior pituitary|
|D)||hypothalamus; posterior pituitary|
If the hypothalamus fails to secrete GnRH, the effect would be
|A)||hyposecretion of pituitary gonadotropins|
|B)||hypersecretion of pituitary gonadotropins|
|C)||hyposecretion of prolactin|
|D)||hypersecretion of oxytocin|
Osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus are involved in the secretion of
All of the following are functions of the endocrine system except:
|A)||Regulate blood calcium levels|
|B)||Regulate the heart rate|
|C)||Control the water balance of the body|
|D)||Regulate body temperature|
The releasing and inhibiting hormones are produced by the
|A)||hypothalamus to control anterior pituitary|
|B)||hypothalamus to control posterior pituitary|
The term gonadotropins refers to this pair of hormones.
|A)||FSH and LH|
|B)||TSH and ACTH|
|C)||PRF and PIF|
|D)||somatomedins and somatotropin|
Which hormone is required for ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum?
Which hormone stimulates its target cells to divide, increases their rate of protein synthesis, decreases their use of glucose and increases their use of fats?
Which stimulus would increase the rate of growth hormone secretion?
|A)||high blood glucose levels|
|B)||high blood protein levels|
|D)||high somatostatin levels|
ADH is also called vasopressin because at high concentrations it causes
|A)||increased urine output|
|B)||constriction of blood vessels|
|C)||increased potassium secretion by the kidneys|
|D)||decreased sodium retention by the kidneys|
ADH is secreted in response to
|B)||increased volume of the body fluids|
|C)||increased osmotic pressure of the body fluids|
|D)||high blood pressure|
Which hormone is sometimes given to women to induce (start) labor?
The primary action of antidiuretic hormone, also called vasopressin, is to
|A)||cause a decrease in blood calcium levels.|
|B)||promote the retention of water by the kidneys.|
|C)||increase metabolic rate.|
|D)||stimulate uterine smooth muscle contractions during delivery.|
Which of these is NOT a function of one or both of the pituitary gonadotropins?
|A)||stimulate milk production in the mammary gland|
|B)||stimulate growth of ovarian follicles|
|C)||promote production of sperm cells in the testes|
|D)||stimulate secretion of sex hormones from ovaries and testes|
A hormone whose target cells are endocrine cells is called
All of the following pituitary gland hormones are tropic except
Diabetes insipidus is due to
|A)||low levels of insulin|
|B)||low levels of glucagon|
|C)||lack of ADH secretion|
|D)||increased production of insulin|
GnRH directly stimulates the release of
Elevated levels of which of the following hormones could cause a goiter?
Hypersecretion of which of the following hormones causes increased metabolic rate, sensitivity to heat, weight loss, and protruding eyes?
The normal histological structure of which endocrine gland consists of small, spherical structures whose walls are made of one layer of cuboidal cells?
the primary effect of mineralocorticoids is
|A)||decreased blood sodium levels|
|B)||production of dilute urine|
|C)||production of concentrated urine|
|D)||increasing blood potassium levels|
The primary stimulus for the release of cortisol is
|A)||nerve stimulation from hypothalamus|
|C)||increased blood glucose levels|
|D)||increased levels of sodium in the blood|
Which of the following hormones is NOT secreted by the pancreas?
Which of the following hormones stimulates liver glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and fat breakdown?
Low blood glucose levels cause an increased secretion of
Which of the following inhibits insulin secretion?
|A)||hyperglycemia and somatostatin|
|B)||hypoglycemia and somatostatin|
|C)||hypercalcemia and hyperglycemia|
Which of these organs would be least affected by insulin hyposecretion?
|A)||resting skeletal muscle|
Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is usually caused by
|A)||failure of target cells to respond to insulin|
|B)||hyposecretion of insulin|
|C)||autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting cells|
|D)||hypersecretion of insulin|
The presence of ketone bodies in the blood is associated with which endocrine disorder?
Which endocrine imbalance would cause hypoglycemia?
|A)||hypersecretion of insulin|
|B)||hypersecretion of glucagon|
|C)||hypersecretion of cortisol|
|D)||hypersecretion of growth hormone|
In which sequence do these cause and effect events occur in someone with diabetes mellitus?
1. Cells cannot absorb glucose.
2. Fat catabolism elevates blood ketone bodies.
3. Ketone bodies cause osmotic diuresis and ketoacidosis.
4. Cells switch to using fat and protein.
|A)||1, 4, 2, 3|
|B)||4, 1, 2, 3|
|C)||1, 2, 3, 4|
|D)||1, 2, 4, 3|
The primary target cells for glucagon are
|A)||skeletal muscle cells.|
Islets of Langerhans are found in the
The stimulus for release of insulin is
|A)||decreased levels of glucose|
|B)||increased levels of glucose|
|C)||hormonal secretion from pituitary|
|D)||neural stimulation from pituitary|
Immediately after eating lunch at 12 pm, if a blood test is performed one should expect to see an increased level of _________________ nutrient/s in the blood
|D)||all of the above|