For each of the following destinations, name all the arteries that a red blood cell would encounter if it started its journey in the left ventricle.
- Posterior interventricular groove of the heart
- Anterior neck to the brain (give two ways)
- Posterior neck to the brain (give two ways)
- External skull
- Tip of the fingers of the left hand (What other blood vessel would be encountered if the trip were through the right upper limb?)
- Anterior compartment of the leg
- Small intestine
- Urinary bladder
For each of the following starting places, name all the veins that a red blood cell would encounter on its way back to the right atrium.
- Anterior interventricular groove of the heart (give two ways)
- Venous sinus near the brain
- External posterior of skull
- Hand (return deep and superficial)
- Foot (return deep and superficial)
- Left inferior wall of the thorax
In a study of heart valve functions, it's necessary to inject a dye into the right atrium of the heart by inserting a catheter into a blood vessel and moving the catheter into the right atrium. What route would you suggest? If you wanted to do this procedure into the left atrium, what would you do differently?
In endurance-trained athletes, the hematocrit can be lower than normal because plasma volume increases more than red blood cell numbers increase. Explain why this condition would be beneficial.
All the blood that passes through the aorta, except the blood that flows into the coronary vessels, returns to the heart through the venae cavae. Explain why the resistance to blood flow in the aorta is greater than the resistance to blood flow in the venae cavae. Because the resistances are different, explain why blood flow can be the same.
As blood vessels increase in diameter, the amount of smooth muscle decreases and the amount of connective tissue increases. Explain why.
A patient is suffering from edema in the lower right limb. Explain why massage helps to remove the excess fluid.
A very short nursing student is asked to measure the blood pressure of a very tall person. She decides to measure the blood pressure at the level of the tall person's foot while he is standing. What artery does she use? After taking the blood pressure, she decides that the tall person is suffering from hypertension because the systolic pressure is 200 mm Hg. Is her diagnosis correct? Why or why not?
Mr. D. was suffering from severe cirrhosis of the liver and hepatitis. He developed severe edema over a period of time. Explain how decreased liver function can result in edema.
During hyperventilation, carbon dioxide is "blown off," and carbon dioxide levels in the blood decrease. What effect does this decrease have on blood pressure? Explain. What symptoms do you expect to see as a result?
Epinephrine causes vasodilation of blood vessels in cardiac muscle but vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the skin. Explain why this is a beneficial arrangement.
One cool evening, Skinny Dip jumps into a hot Jacuzzi. Predict what happens to Skinny's heart rate.